What are soft-tissue injuries?
Many activities can lead to soft-tissue damage of muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
The result can be pain, swelling, bruising, and damage. Soft-tissue injuries are classified
as the following:
Athletes and nonathletes share many similar soft-tissue injuries.
What is a contusion?
A contusion (bruise) is an injury to the soft tissue often produced by a blunt force,
such as a kick, fall, or blow. The result will be pain, swelling, and discoloration
because of bleeding into the tissue. Treatment for contusions includes rest, ice,
compression, and elevation (R.I.C.E.). More serious contusions may need to be examined
by a doctor.
What is a sprain?
A sprain is a partial tear to a ligament and is often caused by a wrench or twist.
Sprains often affect the ankles, knees, or wrists. The treatment for a sprain includes
rest, ice, compression, and elevation (R.I.C.E.). If the ligament is completely torn,
surgical repair may be necessary.
What is tendonitis?
Tendonitis is inflammation of the tendon, a flexible band of tissue that connects
muscle to bones. Tendonitis is often due to an overuse injury in the affected area
from repetitive motion. Areas commonly affected include the elbow, hand, wrist, shoulder,
hip, knee, ankle, and foot. Often the tendonitis is named for the sport or movement
that triggers the inflammation, such as tennis or golfer's elbow, swimmer's shoulder,
and jumper's knee.
Treatment involves healing the inflamed area with rest, compression, elevation, and
anti-inflammatory medicine. Ice may be used in the acute phase of injury. Stretching
and strengthening exercises can gradually be added to help avoid further injury. Steroid
injections may be used for some types of tendonitis if chronic pain persists. If a
tendon is completely torn, surgery may be required.
What is bursitis?
Bursitis is the inflammation of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac that provides a cushion
between bones and muscles or tendons. Like tendonitis, bursitis is often caused by
overuse injury, but can also be caused by direct trauma to a joint. Bursitis commonly
affects the shoulder, elbow, knee, hip, ankle, and foot.
Treatment involves rest, compression, elevation, and anti-inflammatory medicine. Ice
may be used in the acute phase of injury to reduce swelling. Injections may be needed
if pain and swelling persist. If the bursitis is caused by an infection, your doctor
may prescribe antibiotics.
What is a stress fracture?
A stress fracture is a small crack in a bone, commonly occurring in the weight-bearing
bones of the lower extremities, including legs, hips, and feet. Stress fractures are
most often caused by overuse and increase in physical activity. Initial treatment
includes stopping the activity that caused the fracture, elevation, ice, and anti-inflammatory
medicine. Continued treatment includes rest, decreasing weight-bearing on the affected
area, shoe inserts or braces, and possibly cast immobilization. If the crack in the
bone progresses further to a complete break, surgery may be required.
What is a strain?
A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon, and is often caused by overuse, force,
or stretching. The treatment for a strain is rest, ice, compression, and elevation
(R.I.C.E). If a tear in the muscle occurs, surgical repair may be needed.