What is gynecomastia?
Gynecomastia is a condition of overdevelopment or enlargement of the breast tissue
in men or boys. The breasts become larger. They may grow unevenly.
Gynecomastia often happens when a preteen or teenage boy is going through the hormonal
changes of puberty. But it can also happen to newborn babies and to men as they age.
What causes gynecomastia?
Gynecomastia is usually a benign (noncancerous) condition. It may be linked to many
different causes of hormone changes. In many cases, the cause isn’t known.
Gynecomastia is often caused by changes in levels of the female hormone (estrogen)
and the male hormone (testosterone). But it can be caused by other things as well.
Gynecomastia can be a side effect of certain medicines, such as antidepressants, antibiotics,
chemotherapy, prostate cancer medicines, ulcer or cardiovascular medicines. Illegal
drugs, such as anabolic steroids, heroin, or marijuana can also cause gynecomastia.
Some diseases and medical conditions may also cause gynecomastia. These include:
- Liver diseases
- Kidney disease
- Lung cancer
- Testicular cancer
- Tumors of the adrenal glands or pituitary gland
- Some conditions that a baby is born with (congenital disorders)
- Thyroid disorders
- Injury or trauma
Newborn babies may have a short-term form of gynecomastia. This is often because a
mother’s estrogen stays in a baby’s blood for a while after birth.
Gynecomastia is not linked to breast cancer. It is rare that men get breast cancer.
But your provider may do some tests to rule out breast cancer.
What are the symptoms of gynecomastia?
You may have gynecomastia in one or both breasts. It may start as a lump or fatty
tissue beneath the nipple, which may be sore. The breasts often get larger unevenly.
The symptoms of gynecomastia may look like other medical conditions or problems. Always
see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is gynecomastia diagnosed?
Your provider will take your past health and medicine history and give you a physical
To rule out other diseases or conditions, you may also have tests including:
- Blood tests, including liver function tests and hormone studies
- Urine tests
- A low-dose X-ray of your breast (mammogram)
- A small breast tissue sample (a biopsy) may be removed and checked for cancer cells
In some cases, tests are not needed to diagnose the condition
Your provider may suggest that you see a provider who specializes in hormones and
how they affect many organs (an endocrinologist).
How is gynecomastia treated?
Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment for you based on:
- How old you are
- Your overall health and past health
- How sick you are
- How well you handle certain medicines, treatments, or therapies
- How long the condition is expected to last
- Your opinion or preference
Most cases of gynecomastia happen during puberty. The condition usually gets better
on its own without treatment. This may take from 6 months to 2 or 3 years.
If a medicine is causing your breast enlargement, you may need to stop taking the
medicine. That can solve the problem. If a disease is causing the condition, the disease
will need to be treated.
Hormone therapy may be used to treat gynecomastia.
In rare cases, surgery may be used to remove the extra tissue.
Key points about gynecomastia
- Gynecomastia is an overdevelopment or enlargement of the breast tissue in men or boys.
- The breasts become larger. They often grow unevenly.
- It is often caused by changes in levels of the female hormone (estrogen) and the male
hormone (testosterone). Other things may cause it as well.
- Most cases happen when a preteen or teenage boy is going through puberty. But it can
also happen to newborn babies and older men.
- It often goes away on its own. In some cases, hormone therapy is needed. Surgery may
also help treat the condition.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.