Candidiasis in Children
What is candidiasis in children?
Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast called Candida. Candida normally causes
no harm, and is found on the skin, vaginal area, and digestive system. But in some
cases, it can overgrow. This can cause a rash, itching, and other symptoms.
What causes candidiasis in a child?
Yeast normally lives on and in the body and causes no harm. It’s found on the skin,
in the digestive system (including the mouth and throat), and in the genital area.
But it can cause an infection in certain conditions. This can happen when the skin
is damaged, when it’s warm and humid, or when a child has a weak immune system. In
some very sick children, it can infect deeper tissues or the bloodstream and cause
serious illness. Medicine with antibiotics or corticosteroids can also cause the yeast
to overgrow. This is because those medicines kill normal bacteria that usually prevent
too much yeast to grow.
Which children are at risk for candidiasis?
A child is at risk for candidiasis because of:
- Hot, humid weather
- Too much time between diaper changes
- Poor hygiene
- Taking medicines such as antibiotics or corticosteroids
- Health conditions that weaken the immune system, such as diabetes, cancer, or HIV
What are the symptoms of candidiasis in a child?
Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. And they vary depending on where
the infection occurs. The most common symptoms include:
Skin folds or navel
- Patches that ooze clear fluid
- Itching or burning
- White or yellow discharge from the vagina
- Redness in the external area of the vagina
- Redness on the penis
- Scaling on the penis
- Painful rash on the penis
- White patches on the tongue, top of the mouth, and inside of the cheeks
Corners of the mouth (perlèche)
- Cracks or tiny cuts at the corners of the mouth
Nail beds (peronychia)
- White or yellow nail that separates from the nail bed
The symptoms of candidiasis can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child
sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is candidiasis diagnosed in a child?
The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He
or she will give your child a physical exam. And the healthcare provider may scrape
off a skin sample to check in a lab.
How is candidiasis treated in a child?
Most cases of candidiasis are mild and respond well to medicine. Treatment depends
on where the infection is and how severe it is. For example:
- Candidiasis on the skin is treated with medicines to put on the skin, such as creams
- Yeast infections in the vagina or anus can be treated with medicated suppositories.
- Thrush may be treated with a medicated mouthwash or lozenges.
- Severe infection or infection in a child with a weak immune system may be treated
with oral anti-yeast medicines.
What are possible complications of candidiasis in a child?
In rare cases, it can cause serious and life-threatening illness. This can happen
when a child has a weak immune system and the infection enters the bloodstream.
What can I do to prevent candidiasis in my child?
You can help prevent candidiasis by:
- Keeping your child’s skin as clean and dry as possible
- Changing diapers often
- Allowing your child to have diaper-free time
- Using antibiotics on your child only when needed
- Watching for candidiasis symptoms after the use of antibiotics
- Teaching your child about personal hygiene, such as how to brush their teeth and take
- Talking about prevention with your child’s healthcare provider if your child has a
weak immune system
When should I call my child's healthcare provider?
Call the healthcare provider if your child has:
- Symptoms that affect a large area
- Symptoms that get worse
- Signs of a skin infection, such as increased redness, warmth, swelling, or fluid
- New symptoms
Key points about candidiasis in children
- Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast.
- Risk factors for candidiasis include humid weather, too much time between diaper changes,
and other factors.
- Candidiasis is easily treated with medicines such as creams, suppositories, or mouthwash.
- Prevention includes keeping the skin dry, changing diapers often, and using antibiotics
only when needed.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child.
Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose
for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important
if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.