Translocation Down Syndrome
Translocation Down syndrome is a type of Down syndrome that is caused when one chromosome
breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. In this case, there are three 21 chromosomes
but one of the 21 chromosomes is attached to another chromosome. The genetic material
from the extra 21 chromosome is what causes the health problems that are caused by
Down syndrome. In translocation Down syndrome, the extra 21 chromosome may be attached
to the 14 chromosome, or to other chromosome numbers like 13, 15, or 22. In some cases,
two 21 chromosomes can be attached to each other.
A small number of babies born with Down syndrome have translocation Down syndrome. There
are no big differences between the patients who have translocation Down syndrome compared
with those who have 3 separate copies of chromosome 21. This is called trisomy 21.
Whenever a translocation is found in a child, the parents’ chromosomes are looked
at to find out whether the translocation was inherited or not. If one parent has the
translocation chromosome, then the healthcare provider knows the baby inherited the
translocation from that parent. That parent will actually have 45 total chromosomes
in each cell of the body, but the parent will be normal and healthy. This is because that
parent still has only two copies of each chromosome, but two of these chromosomes
are attached to each other. When a person has a rearrangement of chromosome material
with no extra or missing chromosome material, the person is said to have a balanced
translocation. That person can also be a balanced translocation carrier.
Parents with balanced translocations may:
The parent can donate the right amount of chromosomes to a pregnancy. However, that
parent also has a risk of donating too much or too little genetic material to a pregnancy. This
is not something the parent can control or predict. The chance depends on the type
of chromosome rearrangement and which chromosomes are involved.
There is another important thing to remember when a parent is found to have a translocation.
The parents' siblings may also have inherited the translocation and, therefore, may
have the same risks for problems with a pregnancy. For this reason, people with chromosome
rearrangements should share this information with their relatives so that they can
have the option of having their chromosomes studied.