Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in Children and Teens
What is generalized anxiety disorder in children and teens?
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental health problem. A child with GAD has
a lot of worry and fear that seems to have no real cause. The worry may be more intense
than the situation calls for. Children or teens with GAD often worry about many things,
- Future events
- Past behaviors
- Social acceptance
- Family matters
- Their personal abilities
- School performance
All children and teens have some anxiety. It is a normal part of growing up. But sometimes
worries and fears don’t go away. They may interfere with a child’s normal activities.
In these cases, an anxiety disorder may be present.
What causes GAD in a child or teen?
Experts believe GAD is caused by both biological and environmental factors. A child
may inherit a tendency to be anxious. An imbalance of 2 chemicals in the brain (norepinephrine
and serotonin) most likely plays a part.
A child can also learn anxiety and fear from family members and others. For example,
a child with a parent who is afraid of thunderstorms may learn to fear thunderstorms.
A traumatic event may also cause GAD.
Which children and teens are at risk for GAD?
Children who have parents with an anxiety disorder are more likely to develop GAD.
Children who seem more restrained as toddlers may be at more risk for GAD.
What are the symptoms of GAD in a child or teen?
Unlike adults with GAD, children and teens usually don’t realize that their anxiety
is more intense than the situation calls for. Children and teens with GAD often need
frequent reassurance from the adults in their life.
Each child may have different symptoms. But the most common symptoms of GAD are:
- Many worries about things before they happen
- Many worries about friends, school, or activities
- Constant thoughts and fears about the child’s safety or the parents’ safety
- Refusing to go to school
- Frequent stomachaches, headaches, or other physical complaints
- Muscle aches or tension
- Sleep problems
- Lots of worry about sleeping away from home
- Clingy behavior with family members
- Feeling as though there is a lump in the throat
- Extreme tiredness (fatigue)
- Lack of concentration
- Being easily startled
- Inability to relax
The symptoms of GAD may look like other health problems. Make sure your child sees
his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is GAD diagnosed in a child or teen?
A child psychiatrist or other mental health expert can diagnose GAD. He or she will
do a mental health evaluation of your child.
How is GAD treated in a child or teen?
Children and teens with GAD can’t just pull themselves together and get better. They
often need treatment. In many cases, treatment is key to recovery. Untreated, GAD
can get worse or become a long-term problem. Treatment will depend on your child’s
symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition
Treatment for GAD may include:
- Cognitive behavioral therapy. A child learns how to better manage anxiety. The goal is also to help a child master
the situations that may lead to the anxiety.
- Medicines. Antidepressant or antianxiety medicine may help some children feel calmer.
- Family therapy. Parents play a vital role in any treatment.
- School input. A child’s school may also be involved in care.
How can I help prevent GAD in my child or teen?
Experts don’t know how to prevent GAD in children. If you notice signs of GAD in your
child, you can help by seeking an evaluation as soon as possible. Early treatment
can ease symptoms and enhance the child’s normal development. It can also improve
his or her quality of life.
How can I help my child or teen live with GAD?
As a parent, you play a key role in your child’s treatment. Here are things you can
do to help:
- Keep all appointments with your child’s healthcare provider.
- Reassure your child. With GAD, your child may not realize his or her worry is more
intense than the situation calls for. Your child will need more reassurance from you
and other adults.
- Talk with your child’s healthcare provider about other providers who will be involved
in your child’s care. Your child may get care from a team that may include counselors,
therapists, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists. Your child’s care team
will depend on his or her needs and how serious GAD is.
- Tell others about your child’s GAD. Work with your child’s healthcare provider and
school to develop a treatment plan. Remind teachers that your child will need extra
- Reach out for support from local community services. Being in touch with other parents
who have a child with GAD may be helpful.
When should I call my child’s healthcare provider?
Call your healthcare provider right away if your child:
- Feels extreme depression, fear, anxiety, or anger toward him or herself or others
- Feels out of control
- Hears voices that others don’t hear
- Sees things that others don’t see
- Can’t sleep or eat for 3 days in a row
- Shows behavior that concerns friends, family, or teachers, and others express concern
about this behavior and ask you to seek help
GAD may increase a child’s risk for suicide. Threats of suicide are a cry for help.
Always take such statements, thoughts, behaviors, or plans very seriously. Any child
who expresses thoughts of suicide should be evaluated right away.
Call 911 if your child has suicidal thoughts, a suicide plan, and the means to carry out the
Key points about generalized anxiety disorder in children and teens
- Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental health problem. A child with GAD has
a lot of worry and fear that seems to have no real cause.
- A child with GAD may worry about things such as future events, past behaviors, and
- GAD is caused by both biological and environmental factors.
- A mental health evaluation is needed to diagnose GAD.
- Treatment includes therapy and medicines.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child.
Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose
for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important
if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.