Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea) in Teens
What are menstrual cramps in teens?
Menstrual cramps are severe, painful cramps that occur during a period. There are
Primary. This type starts soon after a girl gets her first period. It's usually lifelong.
But it may get better over time.
Secondary. This type is caused by another health problem, such as a growth or infection. It
usually starts later.
What causes menstrual cramps in a teen?
Most cramps are caused by abnormal tightening of the muscles of the uterus (contractions).
This is from changing hormone levels. The hormone prostaglandin controls the contractions
of the uterus.
Secondary menstrual cramps are often caused by endometriosis. This is when tissue
that forms the inside lining of the uterus also grows outside the uterus. It can grow
on other organs inside the pelvis or belly (abdomen). This can also cause internal
bleeding, infection, and pelvic pain.
Other causes of secondary menstrual cramps can include:
Infection of the reproductive organs (pelvic inflammatory disease)
Fibroids (noncancer [benign] growths in the uterus)
Fertilized egg that implants outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy)
Pregnancy loss (miscarriage)
Other infection in the pelvis
Growths in the pelvis such as tumors or polyps
Which teens are at risk for menstrual cramps?
A teen is more at risk for menstrual cramps if they have:
Smoking also increases the risk.
What are the symptoms of menstrual cramps in a teen?
Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each teen. The most common symptoms include:
Other symptoms can include:
Symptoms occur just before menstrual bleeding starts each month. The pain can last
for 1 to 2 days or more. It then lessens at the end of the period.
Symptoms of secondary menstrual cramps can start several days before menstrual bleeding
starts. The pain may get worse and last for days, weeks, or longer.
Menstrual symptoms can be like other health conditions. Make sure your teen sees their
healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How are menstrual cramps diagnosed in a teen?
The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. They
may also ask about your family’s health history. The healthcare provider will give
your teen a physical exam. The physical exam may include a pelvic exam. Your child
may also have tests, such as:
Ultrasound. This painless test uses sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels,
tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function.
They also assess blood flow through various vessels.
Laparoscopy. This procedure uses a thin tube with a lens and a light (laparoscope). The scope
is inserted into a small cut (incision) in the abdominal wall. The healthcare provider
can see abnormal growths in the pelvis and abdomen.
Hysteroscopy. This is an exam of the cervix and inside of the uterus. It's done with a viewing
tool (hysteroscope) inserted through the vagina.
How are menstrual cramps treated in a teen?
Treatment will depend on your teen’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also
depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment options include:
Pain medicines that block prostaglandins, such as ibuprofen
Birth control pills (oral contraceptives)
IUD with progesterone
Heating pad across the lower abdomen
Hot bath or shower
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
Talk with your teen’s healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and possible
side effects of all treatments.
What are possible complications of menstrual cramps in a teen?
Possible complications include missed school or work because of severe pain. Menstrual
cramps can be caused by a condition such as endometriosis. If left untreated, this
may have an impact on your teen’s future ability to get pregnant.
How can I help my teen live with menstrual cramps?
Painful periods can be difficult to cope with every month. You can help by making
sure your teen has the tools to treat pain symptoms quickly. Your teen may also need
emotional support during painful days.
When should I call my teen’s healthcare provider?
Call the healthcare provider if your teen has:
Key points about menstrual cramps in teens
Menstrual cramps are severe, painful cramping that occurs with a period.
Menstrual cramps often start soon after a teen gets their first menstrual period.
It's usually lifelong. But it may get better over time. It is caused by abnormal tightening
of the muscles of the uterus (contractions). This is due to changing hormone levels.
Secondary menstrual cramps are caused by another health problem, such as a growth
or infection. It's often caused by endometriosis.
There are many treatment options. They include pain medicines, hormone treatment,
using a heating pad, surgery, and other methods.
Painful periods can be hard to cope with every month. You can help by making sure
your teen has the tools to treat pain symptoms quickly. Your teen may also need emotional
support during painful days.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your healthcare provider gives you
for your child.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child.
Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose
for that visit.
Know how you can contact your child’s healthcare provider after office hours, and
on weekends and holidays. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have
questions or need advice.