Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Placement
What is an inferior vena cava filter placement?
An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a small device that can stop blood clots from
going up into the lungs. The inferior vena cava is a large vein in the middle of your
body. The device is put in during a short surgery.
Veins are the blood vessels that bring oxygen-poor blood and waste products back to
the heart. Arteries are the blood vessels that bring oxygen-rich blood and nutrients
to the body. A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep
inside the body. A clot occurs when blood thickens and clumps together. In most cases,
this clot forms inside one of the deep veins of the thigh or lower leg.
The veins in your legs have tiny valves that help keep blood moving back up toward
the heart. But a DVT may damage one or more of these valves. This causes them to weaken
or become leaky. When this happens, blood starts to pool in your legs. This can also
happen if you are immobile for a long period of time. Normally, muscles in the leg
help blood move up in the veins when the muscles contract. When blood flows very slowly
through the veins, this increases the risk that cells in the blood will stick together
and form a clot.
DVT is a serious medical condition that can cause swelling, pain, and tenderness in
your leg. In some cases, a deep clot in a leg vein can break free and stick in a vessel
in the lung. This can cause a blockage in the vessel called a pulmonary embolism.
Pulmonary embolism can cause severe shortness of breath and even sudden death.
An IVC filter is one method to help prevent pulmonary embolism. Your inferior vena
cava (IVC) is the major vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower body back
to the heart. The heart then pumps the blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen. An IVC
filter is a small, wiry device. When the filter is placed in your IVC, the blood flows
past the filter. The filter catches blood clots and stops them from moving up to the
heart and lungs. This helps to prevent a pulmonary embolism.
The IVC filter is placed through a small incision in a vein in your groin or neck.
A thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into this vein. The catheter is then
gently moved into your IVC. A collapsed IVC filter is sent with the catheter. The
filter is left in place, and the catheter is removed. The filter then expands and
attaches itself to the walls of the IVC. It may be left in place permanently. In some
cases, it may be removed after a period of time.
It’s important to understand that an IVC filters does not protect against DVT. You may still get a DVT. The filter helps to protect
you from a life-threatening pulmonary embolism if you have a DVT.
Why might I need an inferior vena cava filter placement?
You might need an IVC filter if you have a DVT or pulmonary embolism, or have had
either of these in the past. You might need an IVC filter if you have a high risk
of getting a DVT. Anything that slows the movement of blood through your veins increases
your risk of DVT. A variety of conditions can increase your chance of getting a DVT,
- Recent surgery, which decreases your mobility and increases inflammation in the body,
which can lead to clotting
- Medical conditions that limit your mobility, such as an injury or stroke
- Long periods of travel, which limit your mobility
- Injury to a deep vein in the leg
- Inherited blood disorders that increase clotting
- Cancer treatment
- Older age
A blood-thinning medicine such as warfarin is also used to treat people who are at
risk of pulmonary embolism. Blood thinners may be used alone to prevent pulmonary
embolism. But in some cases, they may be used along with the IVC filter.
However, some people have conditions that make this kind of medicine unsafe for them.
They may have dangerous bleeding when taking blood thinners. This may include someone
who has bleeding in the brain from a trauma or fall, or has bleeding in the digestive
tract. Excess bleeding in these areas can be life-threatening. In these cases, your
healthcare provider may instead advise an IVC filter alone to protect against pulmonary
It’s important to understand that an IVC filters does not protect against DVT. You
may still get a DVT. The filter helps to protect you from a life-threatening pulmonary
embolism if you have a DVT.
What are the risks of an inferior vena cava filter placement?
All procedures have risks. The risks of this procedure include:
- Excess bleeding
- Allergic reaction
- Damage to the blood vessel at the insertion site
- Blockage of blood flow through the vena cava, which can cause leg swelling
- A filter that travels to the heart or lungs, causing injury or death
- A filter that pierces through the inferior vena cava, causing pain or damage to other
- Problem with placement of the filter
- Continued risk of a blood clot that travels to the lungs
Your risks may vary based on your overall health, the severity of your condition,
and other factors. Ask your provider about which risks apply most to you.
How do I prepare for an inferior vena cava filter placement?
Talk with your healthcare provider about how to prepare for your surgery.
- Your healthcare provider will explain the procedure to you. Ask any questions you
- You will be asked to sign a consent form that gives your permission to do the procedure.
Read the form carefully and ask questions if anything is not clear.
- Talk with your provider about the type of IVC filter that you will have. Some filters
can be taken out when your risk of DVT is lower. Others are meant to stay in your
- Tell your provider about all the medicines you take. This includes over-the-counter
medicines such as aspirin and all prescription medicines. It also includes herbs,
vitamins, and other supplements. You may need to stop taking some medicines before
the surgery, such as blood thinners.
- If you smoke, you’ll need to stop before your surgery. Smoking can delay healing.
Talk with your provider if you need help to stop smoking.
- Don’t eat or drink after midnight the night before your surgery.
Before the procedure, make sure to tell the healthcare team if you:
- Have any allergies
- Have had any recent changes in your health, such as a fever
- Are pregnant or think you might be pregnant
- Have ever had a problem with sedation
Follow any other instructions from your provider.
What happens during an inferior vena cava filter placement?
Talk with your healthcare provider about what to expect during your procedure. It
usually takes about an hour. The procedure is done by an interventional radiologist
and a team of specialized nurses. A typical procedure may go like this:
- An IV (intravenous) line will be put in your arm or hand before the procedure starts.
You’ll be given sedation through the IV line. This will make you relaxed and sleepy
during the procedure.
- Hair in the area of your procedure may be removed. The area may be numbed with a local
- Your doctor will make a small incision in this region to access a major vein leading
to the IVC.
- A long thin tube (catheter) will be inserted into this vein.
- Using continuous X-rays (fluoroscopy), this tube will be moved up into the IVC. X-ray
dye (contrast material) may be sent through into the catheter. This helps show the
IVC clearly on the X-rays.
- Your doctor will release the filter into the IVC. Here the filter will expand and
attach itself to the walls of your IVC.
- The catheter will be removed.
- The incision on your neck or groin will be closed and bandaged.
What happens after an inferior vena cava filter placement?
After the procedure, you will spend several hours in a recovery room. You may be sleepy
and confused when you wake up. Your healthcare team will watch your vital signs, such
as your heart rate and breathing. You’ll be given pain medicine if you need it. You
may have a headache or nausea, but these should go away quickly.
You may be able to go home the same day. Your healthcare provider will tell you more
about what to expect. When you’re ready to go home, you’ll need to have a family member
or friend drive you.
You may have some pain after the procedure. You may notice a bruise where the catheter
was inserted. You can take over-the-counter pain medicines if you need to. Get some
rest and avoid strenuous exercise for at least 24 hours.
Call your provider right away if you have any of the following:
- Coldness or numbness in one of your limbs
- Bleeding at the site that doesn’t stop with pressure
- Swelling or pain at the incision site that gets worse
- Fluid leaking from the incision site
- Redness or warmth at the incision site
- Chest pain
- Headache or nausea that don’t go away
Follow all of your doctor’s instructions. This includes any advice about medications,
exercise, and wound care. Your doctor may prescribe blood thinner medication to help
prevent blood clots.
You will need continued monitoring after your treatment. You may need follow-up imaging
tests to make sure your filter is still in the correct location. If you have the type
of IVC filter that can be removed, you may have a similar procedure in the future
to remove the device. This may be done after your risk of DVT has decreased. In some
cases, a removable filter is left in place. This may happen if scar tissue grows around
the filter and it cannot be removed.
Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:
- The name of the test or procedure
- The reason you are having the test or procedure
- What results to expect and what they mean
- The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
- What the possible side effects or complications are
- When and where you are to have the test or procedure
- Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
- What would happen if you did not have the test or procedure
- Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
- When and how will you get the results
- Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
- How much will you have to pay for the test or procedure