Cardiac Biomarkers (Blood)
Does this test have other names?
CK, CK-MB, cardiac troponin T, troponin I, myoglobin, cardiac enzymes
What is this test?
This test measures the levels of cardiac biomarkers in your blood. These markers include
enzymes, hormones, and proteins.
Cardiac biomarkers show up in your blood after your heart has been under severe stress
and becomes injured because it isn't getting enough oxygen. This might be because
you've had a heart attack. But these levels can be high for other reasons. The levels
of biomarkers are often used to quickly find out the size of a heart attack and how
seriously your heart was affected.
These cardiac biomarkers can be used to diagnose a heart attack:
Cardiac troponin. This protein is by far the most commonly used biomarker. It has the highest known
sensitivity. It enters into your bloodstream soon after a heart attack. It also stays
in your bloodstream days after all other biomarkers go back to normal levels. Two
forms of troponin may be measured: troponin T and troponin I. Troponin I is highly
specific to the heart and stays higher longer than creatinine kinase-MB. Current guidelines
from the American Heart Association (AHA) say this is the best biomarker for finding
a heart attack. The AHA says to limit use of the other biomarkers. These include CK,
CK-MB, and myoglobin.
Creatinine kinase (CK). This enzyme can also be measured several times over a 24-hour period. It will often
at least double if you've had a heart attack. But because levels of CK can go up in
many other conditions besides a heart attack, it is not very specific.
CK-MB. This is a subtype of CK. It is more sensitive for finding heart damage from a heart
attack. CK-MB rises 4 to 6 hours after a heart attack. But it is generally back to
normal in a day or two. Because of this, it's not helpful when a healthcare provider
is trying to figure out if your recent chest pain was a heart attack.
Myoglobin. This is a small protein that stores oxygen. It is measured occasionally. Myoglobin
is sometimes measured in addition to troponin to help diagnose a heart attack. It
is also not very specific for finding a heart attack.
Why do I need this test?
You may need this test if your healthcare provider thinks you're having or have recently
had a heart attack. You may also need this test if you have symptoms of coronary artery
Symptoms of coronary blockage may include:
Chest pain or pressure that lasts for more than a few minutes
Pain or discomfort in your shoulders, neck, arms, or jaw
Chest pain that gets worse
Chest pain that doesn’t get better by rest or by taking nitroglycerin
Other symptoms that may happen along with chest pain may include:
Sweating, cool, clammy skin, or paleness
Shortness of breath
Nausea or vomiting
Dizziness or fainting
Unexplained weakness or extreme tiredness (fatigue)
Fast or irregular pulse
What other tests might I have along with this test?
You may need other tests to measure other factors in your blood, or in your heart,
or both. These include:
Blood gases or other tests to measure oxygen in the blood
Complete blood count (CBC)
Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride)
Blood lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides)
Blood sugar (glucose)
Echocardiogram or ultrasound of the heart muscle
Cardiac catheterization or coronary angiogram
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). This is to find stress in the heart or heart failure
after a heart attack.
What do my test results mean?
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used
for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem.
Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.
Results are given in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). People who are young and healthy
often have little or no cardiac troponin in their blood. Troponin I levels are often
less than 0.12 ng/mL. Troponin T levels are often less than 0.01ng/mL.
Normal-level results vary. But cardiac troponin levels above the 99th percentile of
the reference range suggest heart muscle damage and a heart attack.
How is this test done?
The test is done with a blood sample. A needle is used to draw blood from a vein in
your arm or hand.
Does this test pose any risks?
Having a blood test with a needle carries some risks. These include bleeding, infection,
bruising, and feeling lightheaded. When the needle pricks your arm or hand, you may
feel a slight sting or pain. Afterward, the site may be sore.
What might affect my test results?
Other factors aren't likely to affect your results.
How do I get ready for this test?
You don't need to get ready for this test. Be sure your healthcare provider knows
about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes
medicines that don't need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use.