Fecal Occult Blood Test
Does this test have other names?
FOBT, stool occult blood
What is this test?
A fecal occult blood test checks a stool sample for blood that can't be seen with
the naked eye. Blood in the stool is a sign of bleeding in the digestive tract. This
could indicate cancer, polyps, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, or inflammatory bowel
disease, also called colitis.
Why do I need this test?
You may need this test because the American Cancer Society recommends that all men
and women at average risk for colon cancer start screening tests at age 45. One screening
test option is a fecal occult blood test every year. This simple test can help find
colon or rectal cancer. Your healthcare provider may give you the test. Or you can
buy a home use kit.
What other tests might I have along with this test?
If the fecal occult blood test shows blood in the stool, you will need a colonoscopy to
find out the source and nature of the bleeding.
What do my test results mean?
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used
for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem.
Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.
A fecal occult blood test uses chemicals to find out if there is blood in a sample
of feces. If your test is negative, your result is normal.
If your test is positive, you had blood from your digestive tract in your stool sample.
Additional testing, such as a colonoscopy, can help find out the location, cause,
and extent of the bleeding.
How is this test done?
Your healthcare provider gives you a kit to help you collect and prepare bowel movement
samples for the fecal occult blood test. The test needs samples collected from more
than 1 bowel movement–typically, 3 in a row. You then mail the samples to a lab or
returning them to your healthcare provider's office.
Collecting and preparing the samples typically follows these steps:
Collect 1 of your stools in a dry container. Don't allow urine to mix with it.
Use a wooden applicator to put a small smear of stool on the card or slide you have
Flush the unused stool down the toilet.
Seal the sample and write your name and date on it.
Repeat this process for the next 2 stools, or as instructed.
Does this test pose any risks?
This test poses no known risks.
What might affect my test results?
A positive result on a fecal occult blood test doesn't mean you have cancer. Other
health conditions, such as ulcers or hemorrhoids, more commonly can cause a positive
test result. Healthcare providers will do more tests find the cause.
Eating certain foods can affect the test results, even though the fecal occult blood
test only detects human blood. Your healthcare provider may ask you to avoid certain
foods a few days before the test to lower the chances of getting a false-positive
How do I get ready for this test?
Don't take NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen,
or aspirin for 7 days before the test. Acetaminophen is safe to use. If you take aspirin
daily to prevent heart disease, talk with your healthcare provider before you stop
taking this medicine.
Don't take vitamin C supplements or drink or eat juice or fruits high in vitamin C
for 7 days before the test. Vitamin C can cause a false-negative test result.
Don't eat red meat, such as beef, lamb, pork, and liver, for 3 days before testing.
It's unlikely, but these foods could change your test result. In some cases, healthcare
providers don't put any limits on food because this may make people less likely to
do the test. Having the test is the most important thing.
Let your healthcare provider know about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements
you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illegal
drugs you may use.