Allium sativum. Family: Liliaceae
Garlic consists of fresh or dried bulbs of the botanical plant Allium sativum. It’s
cultivated worldwide. The bulb, or clove, is the part of the plant that’s used most
often. But sometimes garlic oil is used. Garlic is best stored hung in a dry place.
Garlic contains alliin. When this is ground, it makes the strong-smelling, potent
antibacterial agent allicin. Garlic may have antibacterial effects. It’s also said
to protect against atherosclerosis and stroke. This is because it keeps platelets
from sticking together. It may also lower high blood pressure and cholesterol.
Medically valid uses
Some animal studies suggest that garlic may improve insulin release, but there is
no evidence to support this effect in humans.
Other studies show that garlic may improve the elasticity of the aorta. It may also
keep atherosclerotic plaque from forming.
There is some evidence that says garlic can slightly lower cholesterol levels. But
recent research done by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health found
that garlic had no effect on cholesterol.
Some research shows that taking garlic by mouth can modestly reduce blood pressure.
This effect was seen in people with high blood pressure. It was also seen in people
with normal blood pressure. The evidence that it reduces high blood pressure isn't
strong. The evidence isn't enough to support using garlic to lower blood pressure
in people with hypertension.
There may be benefits that have not yet been proven through research.
Some reports suggest that garlic may help prevent or treat cancer.
Garlic contains allicin. This is a strong antibiotic. It’s released when cloves are
crushed or chewed. Garlic has been used as an antiseptic, antibacterial, and antifungal
agent. It may help the body resist or destroy viruses and other microorganisms. It
does this by boosting the immune system.
Garlic is also claimed to fight infections. It may also build up strength. Garlic
may also have laxative effects.
Garlic may also help treat these issues:
Garlic is available fresh or dried in oral capsule form. The enteric-coated capsules
are easiest for the body to absorb. It also comes as an extract and as odorless supplements.
The quality of commercial forms of garlic varies a lot.
Use garlic exactly as directed on the label.
Side effects, toxicity, and interactions
Garlic has a strong taste and odor. Raw garlic can cause stomach upset in some people.
Odorless garlic supplements get rid of the strong taste and odor. They may also reduce
Some people are allergic to garlic. When taken in large amounts, garlic may cause
side effects. These include causing stomach ulcers and anemia.
Garlic can interact with certain medicines. Using supplements of garlic that contain
allicin for a long time may decrease how well saquinavir (a medicine used to treat
HIV) works. If you’re taking this medicine, talk with your healthcare provider before
using garlic. Be careful when taking blood thinner medicines, as garlic may increase
the risk of bleeding.