Symptoms of discomfort due to pregnancy vary from person to person. Below are some
common discomforts. But each parent-to-be may have different symptoms or none at all:
Nausea and vomiting. About half of all pregnant people have nausea and sometimes vomiting in the first
trimester. This is also called morning sickness. That's because symptoms are most
severe in the morning. Some people may have nausea and vomiting throughout the pregnancy. Morning
sickness may be due to the changes in hormone levels during pregnancy.
Morning sickness seems to be made worse by stress, traveling, and certain foods, like
spicy or fatty foods. Eating small meals several times a day may help lessen the symptoms.
A diet high in protein and complex carbohydrates (like whole-wheat bread, pasta, bananas,
and green, leafy vegetables) may also help reduce the severity of the nausea.
If vomiting is severe, causing you to lose fluids and weight, it may be a sign of a
condition called hyperemesis gravidarum. Hyperemesis can lead to dehydration and may
need a hospital stay for intravenous fluids and nutrition. Call your healthcare provider
or midwife if you are having constant or severe nausea and vomiting.
Fatigue. As the body works overtime to provide a nourishing environment for the fetus, it is
no wonder a pregnant person often feels tired. In the first trimester, their blood
volume and other fluids increase as their body adjusts to the pregnancy. Sometimes
anemia is the underlying cause of the fatigue. Anemia is a drop in the ability of
red blood cells to carry oxygen. It is often due to low iron levels. A simple blood
test done at a prenatal visit will check for anemia.
Hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are common in late pregnancy. That's because of the increased pressure
on the rectum and perineum, the increased blood volume, and the increased likelihood
of becoming constipated as the pregnancy progresses. Preventing constipation and straining
may help to prevent hemorrhoids. Always check with your healthcare provider or midwife
before using any medicine to treat this condition.
Varicose veins. Varicose veins—swollen, purple veins—are common in the legs and around the vaginal
opening during late pregnancy. In most cases, varicose veins are caused by the increased
pressure on the legs and the pelvic veins. It is also caused by the increased blood
Heartburn and indigestion. Heartburn and indigestion is caused by pressure on the intestines and stomach (which,
in turn, pushes stomach contents back up into the esophagus). It can be prevented
or reduced by eating smaller meals throughout the day and by not lying down shortly
Bleeding gums. Gums may become more spongy as blood flow increases during pregnancy. This causes
them to bleed easily. A pregnant person should continue to take care of her teeth
and gums and go to the dentist for regular checkups. This symptom usually disappears
Pica. Pica is a rare craving to eat substances other than food, like dirt, clay, or coal.
The craving may be a sign of a nutritional deficiency.
Swelling or fluid retention. Mild swelling is common during pregnancy. But severe swelling that lasts may be a
sign of preeclampsia (abnormal condition marked by high blood pressure). Lying on
the left side, elevating the legs, and wearing support hose and comfortable shoes
may help to relieve the swelling. Be sure to notify your healthcare provider or midwife
about sudden swelling, especially in the hands or face, or rapid weight gain.
Skin changes. Because of changes in hormone levels, including hormones that stimulate pigmentation
of the skin, brown, blotchy patches may happen on the face, forehead, or cheeks. This
is often called the mask of pregnancy, or chloasma. It often disappears soon after delivery. Using sunscreen when outside can reduce the
amount of darkening that happens.
Pigmentation may also increase in the skin surrounding the nipples, called the areola.
A dark line also often appears down the middle of the stomach. Freckles may darken,
and moles may grow.
Stretch marks. Pinkish stretch marks may appear on the stomach, breasts, thighs, or buttocks. Stretch
marks are generally caused by a rapid increase in weight. The marks usually fade after
Yeast infections. Due to hormone changes and increased vaginal discharge, also called leukorrhea, a
pregnant person is more prone to yeast infections. Yeast infections cause a thick,
whitish discharge from the vagina and itching. Yeast infections are highly treatable.
Always talk with your healthcare provider or midwife before taking any medicine for
Congested or bloody nose. During pregnancy, the lining of the respiratory tract receives more blood, often making
it more congested. This congestion can also cause stuffiness in the nose or nosebleeds.
Small blood vessels in the nose are also easily damaged due to the increased blood
volume, causing nosebleeds.
Constipation. Increased pressure from the pregnancy on the rectum and intestines can interfere with
digestion and bowel movements. Hormone changes may also slow down the food being processed
by the body. Increasing fluids, exercising regularly, and increasing the fiber in
your diet are some of the ways to prevent constipation. Always check with your healthcare
provider or midwife before taking any medicine for this condition.
Backache. As a person's weight increases, their balance changes. Their center of gravity is
pulled forward, straining the back. Pelvic joints that begin to loosen in preparation
for childbirth also contribute to this back strain. Correct posture and correct lifting
methods throughout the pregnancy can help reduce the strain on the back.
Dizziness. Dizziness during pregnancy is a common symptom. It may be caused by:
To prevent injury from falling during episodes of dizziness, a pregnant person should
stand up slowly and hold on to the walls and other stable structures for support and
Headaches. Hormonal changes may be the cause of headaches during pregnancy, especially during
the first trimester. Rest, correct nutrition, and adequate fluid intake may help ease
headache symptoms. Always talk with your healthcare provider or midwife before taking
any medicine for this condition. If you have a severe headache or a headache that
does not go away, call your healthcare provider. It may be a sign of preeclampsia.