The senses of a newborn
Babies are born with all five senses—sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Some
of the senses are not fully developed. The newborn's senses are as described below.
Over the first few months, babies may have uncoordinated eye movements. They may even
seem cross-eyed. Babies are born with the ability to focus only at close range. This
is about 8 to 10 inches, or the distance between a mother's face to the baby in her
arms. Babies are able to follow or track an object in the first few weeks of life.
Focus improves over the first 2 to 3 years of life to a normal 20/20 vision. Newborns
can detect light and dark but can't see all colors. This is why many baby books and
infant toys have distinct black and white patterns.
During pregnancy, many mothers find that the baby may kick or jump in response to
loud noises and may quiet with soft, soothing music. Hearing is fully developed in
newborns. Babies with normal hearing should startle in response to loud sounds. These
babies will also pay quiet attention to the mother's or father's voice. And they will
briefly stop moving when sound at a conversational level is begun. Newborns seem to
prefer a higher-pitched voice (the mother's) to a low-sounding voice (males). They
can also tune out loud noises after hearing them several times.
Newborns will have their hearing screened while still in the hospital.
Studies have found that newborns have a strong sense of smell. Newborns prefer the
smell of their own mother, especially her breastmilk.
Babies prefer sweet tastes over sour or bitter tastes. Babies also show a strong preference
for human milk and breastfeeding. This is especially true if they are breastfed first
and then offered formula or a bottle.
Babies are comforted by touch. Placing a hand on your baby's belly or cuddling close
can help them feel more secure. Wrapping your baby snugly in a blanket (swaddling)
is another method used to help newborn babies feel secure. You can buy a special swaddling
blanket designed to make swaddling easier.
Don’t use swaddling if your baby is older than 2 months or is trying to roll over
on their own. Swaddling may raise the risk for SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
if the swaddled baby rolls onto their stomach.
When you swaddle, give your baby enough room to move their hips and legs. The legs
should be able to bend up and out at the hips. Don’t place your baby’s legs so that
they're held together and straight down. This raises the risk that the hip joints
won’t grow and develop correctly. This can cause a problem called hip dysplasia and
Also be careful of swaddling your baby if the weather is warm or hot. Using a thick
blanket in warm weather can make your baby overheat. Instead use a lighter blanket
or sheet to swaddle the baby.
Some mothers find their babies are comforted when safely worn in a sling or carrier.
Holding a baby for feedings is also important. Breastfeeding babies automatically
spend several hours a day in their mother's arms.