Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)
What is a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)?
The prostate gland is found only in males. It sits below the bladder and wraps around
the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of the body. The prostate
helps produce semen.
A transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is surgery to remove parts of the
prostate gland through the penis. No incisions are needed.
The surgeon reaches the prostate by putting an instrument into the end of the penis
and through the urethra. This instrument, called a resectoscope, is about 12 inches
long and .5 inch in diameter. It contains a lighted camera and valves that control
irrigating fluid. It also contains an electrical wire loop that cuts tissue and seals
blood vessels. The wire loop is guided by the surgeon to remove the tissue blocking
the urethra one piece at a time. The pieces of tissue are carried by the irrigating
fluid into the bladder and then flushed out at the end of the procedure.
Why might I need TURP?
TURP is most often done to relieve symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate. This is
often due to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is not cancer. It is a common
part of aging. When the prostate gland is enlarged, it can press against the urethra
and interfere with or block the passage of urine out of the body.
Sometimes a TURP is done to treat symptoms only, not to cure the disease. For example,
if you’re unable to urinate because of prostate cancer, but surgery to remove the
prostate isn’t an option for you, you may need a TURP.
There may be other reasons for your healthcare provider to recommend a TURP.
What are the risks of a TURP?
As with any surgery, certain complications can occur with TURP. Some possible complications
- Bladder injury
- Blood in the urine after surgery
- Electrolyte abnormalities
- Loss of erections
- Painful or difficult urination
- Retrograde ejaculation (when ejaculate goes into the bladder and not out the penis)
There may be other risks depending on your condition. Be sure to discuss any concerns
with your healthcare provider before the procedure.
How do I get ready for a TURP?
Some things you can expect before the procedure include:
- Your healthcare provider will explain the procedure and you can ask questions.
- You will be asked to sign a consent form that gives permission to do the procedure.
Read the form carefully and ask questions if anything isn’t clear.
- Your healthcare provider will review your medical history, and do a physical exam
to be sure you’re in good health before you have the procedure. You may also need
blood tests and other tests.
- You will be asked not to eat or drink anything for 8 hours before the procedure, generally
- Tell your healthcare provider if you are sensitive to or allergic to any medicines,
latex, iodine, tape, contrast dyes, or anesthesia.
- Make sure your healthcare provider has a list of all medicines herbs, vitamins, and
supplements that you are taking. This includes both prescribed and over-the-counter.
- Tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of bleeding disorders or if you
are taking any blood-thinning medicines (anticoagulants), aspirin, or any other medicines
that affect blood clotting. You may need to stop these medicines before the procedure.
- If you smoke, stop as soon as possible to improve recovery and your overall health.
- You may be given a sedative before the procedure to help you relax.
Based on your medical condition, your healthcare provider may request other specific
What happens during TURP?
TURP requires a hospital stay. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and
your healthcare provider’s practices.
Generally, a TURP follows this process:
- You will be asked to remove any jewelry or other objects that might get in the way
- You will be asked to remove your clothing and will be given a gown to wear
- You'll be asked to empty your bladder.
- An IV line will be put in your arm or hand.
- You will be positioned on an operating table, lying on your back.
- You will be given anesthesia to put you to sleep for the procedure. Your legs will
be placed in stirrups.
- Your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and blood oxygen level will be monitored
during the surgery.
- Once you’re sedated, a breathing tube may be put through your throat into your lungs
and you will be connected to a ventilator. This will breathe for you during the surgery.
- The surgeon may first inspect the urethra and bladder with an endoscope. This is done
by passing the scope through the tip of the penis, then into the urethra and bladder.
This allows the healthcare provider to examine these areas for any tumors or stones
in the bladder.
- Next, the resectoscope is passed into the urethra. It is used to cut away the pieces
of prostate tissue that are bulging or blocking the urethra. Electricity will be applied
through the resectoscope to stop any bleeding. The pieces are flushed into the bladder,
and then drained out through the urethra.
- The resectoscope is removed.
- The healthcare provider will put a soft, flexible tube called a catheter into your
bladder to drain urine.
What happens after TURP?
In the hospital
After the procedure, you may be taken to a recovery room and watched closely. Once
your blood pressure, pulse, and breathing are stable and you are alert, you will be
taken to your hospital room.
You may get pain medicine as needed, either by a nurse, or by giving it yourself through
a device connected to your IV line.
Once you are awake, you may start to drink liquids. You will be able to eat solid
foods as you are able to handle them.
The catheter will stay in place for 1 to 3 days to help urine drain while your prostate
gland heals. You will probably have blood in your urine after surgery. A bag of solution
may be attached to the catheter to flush the blood and potential clots out of your
bladder and the catheter. The bleeding will slowly decrease, and then the catheter
will be removed.
Arrangements will be made for a follow-up visit with your healthcare provider. Your
healthcare provider may give you other instructions after the procedure, depending
on your situation.
Once you are home, it will be important to drink lots of fluids. This helps to flush
out any remaining blood or clots from your bladder.
You will be told not to do any heavy lifting for several weeks after the TURP. This
is to help prevent bleeding.
You may be tender or sore for several days after a TURP. Take a pain reliever for
soreness as recommended by your healthcare provider.
You shouldn’t drive until your healthcare provider tells you to. Other activity restrictions
may also apply.
Tell your healthcare provider to report any of the following:
- Fever and/or chills
- Trouble urinating
- Trouble controlling your bladder
- Changes in your urine output, color, or odor
- Increasing blood or clots in your urine
Your healthcare provider may give you other instructions after the procedure, depending
on your particular situation.
Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:
- The name of the test or procedure
- The reason you are having the test or procedure
- What results to expect and what they mean
- The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
- What the possible side effects or complications are
- When and where you are to have the test or procedure
- Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
- What would happen if you did not have the test or procedure
- Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
- When and how will you get the results
- Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
- How much will you have to pay for the test or procedure