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Concussion Epidemiology, Natural History and Long Term Outcomes

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Concussion—also known as mild TBI-- is a growing public health problem affecting over 3.8 million Americans annually and resulting in over 2.2 million emergency department visits each year. Between 2010 and 2015, diagnoses for concussion and post-concussion syndrome increased by 43% and 81%, respectively. These conditions produce symptoms such as headache, dizziness, difficulty with memory and concentration, difficulties with balance, and fatigue that are potentially disabling. Disability resulting from concussion costs the US nearly $17 billion each year. According to a 2004 World Health Organization report, most concussion patients make a full recovery within 2-3 months. However, several studies published since 2004 suggest that as many as 40-50% of concussion patients are not recovered at 3 months, and that there are large differences in the percent of recovered subjects across studies. The Bazarian lab has explored factors associated with prolonged recovery among both emergency department patients and collegiate athletes.


  • Erin Wasserman PhD, Director NCAA Injury Prevention Program, Datalys Center
  • Edwin VanWijngaarden PhD, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester
  • Katherine Rizzone MD MPH, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Rochester
  • Julianne Schmidt PhD, Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia

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