URMC / Labs / Sant Lab / Publications Publications Nelson SADileepan TRasley AJenkins MKFischer NOSant AJ Intranasal nanoparticle vaccination elicits a persistent, polyfunctional CD4 T cell response in the murine lung specific for a highly conserved influenza antigen that are sufficient to mediate protection from influenza virus challenge.; Journal of virology. 2021 Jun 02. Richards KAGlover MCrawford JCThomas PWhite CSant AJ Circulating CD4 T cells elicited by endemic coronaviruses display vast disparities in abundance and functional potential linked to both antigen specificity and age.; The Journal of infectious diseases. 2021 Feb 08. Richards KAMoritzky SShannon IFitzgerald TYang HBranche ATopham DJTreanor JJNayak JSant AJ Recombinant HA-based vaccine outperforms split and subunit vaccines in elicitation of influenza-specific CD4 T cells and CD4 T cell-dependent antibody responses in humans.; NPJ vaccines; Vol 5(1). 2020 Aug 26. Koroleva MBatarse FMoritzky SHenry CChaves FWilson PKrammer FRichards KSant AJ Heterologous viral protein interactions within licensed seasonal influenza virus vaccines.; NPJ vaccines; Vol 5(1). 2020 Jan 10. Richards KAMoritzky SShannon IFitzgerald TYang HBranche ATopham DJTreanor JJNayak JSant AJ Recombinant HA-based vaccine outperforms split and subunit vaccines in elicitation of influenza-specific CD4 T cells and CD4 T cell-dependent antibody responses in humans.; NPJ vaccines; Vol 5. 2020. Koroleva MBatarse FMoritzky SHenry CChaves FWilson PKrammer FRichards KSant AJ Heterologous viral protein interactions within licensed seasonal influenza virus vaccines.; NPJ vaccines; Vol 5. 2020. Knowlden ZAGRichards KAMoritzky SASant AJ Peptide Epitope Hot Spots of CD4 T Cell Recognition Within Influenza Hemagglutinin During the Primary Response to Infection.; Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland); Vol 8(4). 2019 Nov 05. DiPiazza ATFan SRattan ADeDiego MLChaves FNeumann GKawaoka YSant AJ A Novel Vaccine Strategy to Overcome Poor Immunogenicity of Avian Influenza Vaccines through Mobilization of Memory CD4 T Cells Established by Seasonal Influenza.; Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950); Vol 203(6). 2019 Sep 15. Richards KAShannon ITreanor JJYang HNayak JLSant AJ Evidence that blunted CD4 T cells responses underlie deficient protective antibody responses to influenza vaccines in repeatedly vaccinated human subjects.; The Journal of infectious diseases. 2019 Aug 26. Rattan ARichards KAKnowlden ZAGSant AJ Protein vaccination directs the CD4+ T cell response towards shared protective epitopes that can be recalled after influenza infection.; Journal of virology. 2019 Jul 24. Sant AJ The way forward: Potentiating protective immunity to novel and pandemic influenza through engagement of memory CD4 T cells.; The Journal of infectious diseases. 2019 Jan 31. Varga SMSant AJ Editorial: Orchestration of an Immune Response to Respiratory Pathogens.; Frontiers in immunology; Vol 10. 2019. Nelson SASant AJ Imprinting and Editing of the Human CD4 T Cell Response to Influenza Virus.; Frontiers in immunology; Vol 10. 2019. Sant AJDiPiazza ATNayak JLRattan ARichards KA CD4 T cells in protection from influenza virus: Viral antigen specificity and functional potential.; Immunological reviews; Vol 284(1). 2018 Jul. Richards KATreanor JJNayak JLSant AJ Overarching Immunodominance Patterns and Substantial Diversity in Specificity and Functionality in the Circulating Human Influenza A and B CD4 T Cell Repertoire.; The Journal of infectious diseases. 2018 May 12. DiPiazza ALaniewski NRattan ATopham DJMiller JSant AJ CD4 T cell epitope specificity and cytokine potential are preserved as cells transition from the lung vasculature to lung tissue following influenza infection.; Journal of virology. 2018 Apr 18. Sant AJRichards KANayak J Distinct and complementary roles of CD4 T cells in protective immunity to influenza virus.; Current opinion in immunology; Vol 53. 2018 Apr 02. Richards KADiPiazza ATRattan AKnowlden ZAGYang HSant AJ Diverse Epitope Specificity, Immunodominance Hierarchy, and Functional Avidity of Effector CD4 T Cells Established During Priming Is Maintained in Lung After Influenza A Virus Infection.; Frontiers in immunology; Vol 9. 2018. DiPiazza ATRichards KALiu WCAlbrecht RASant AJ Analyses of Cellular Immune Responses in Ferrets Following Influenza Virus Infection.; Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.); Vol 1836. 2018. DiPiazza ANogales APoulton NWilson PCMartínez-Sobrido LSant AJ Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Venus reporter virus reveals broad diversity of MHC class II-positive antigen-bearing cells following infection in vivo.; Scientific reports; Vol 7(1). 2017 Sep 07. DiPiazza ARichards KPoulton NSant AJ Avian and Human Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Proteins Elicit CD4 T Cell Responses That Are Comparable in Epitope Abundance and Diversity.; Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI; Vol 24(3). 2017 Mar. DiPiazza ARichards KBatarse FLockard LZeng HGarcía-Sastre AAlbrecht RASant AJ Flow Cytometric and Cytokine ELISpot Approaches To Characterize the Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Ferrets following Influenza Virus Infection.; Journal of virology; Vol 90(17). 2016 Sep 01. Knowlden ZASant AJ CD4 T cell epitope specificity determines follicular versus non-follicular helper differentiation in the polyclonal response to influenza infection or vaccination.; Scientific reports; Vol 6. 2016. DiPiazza ARichards KAKnowlden ZANayak JLSant AJ The Role of CD4 T Cell Memory in Generating Protective Immunity to Novel and Potentially Pandemic Strains of Influenza.; Frontiers in immunology; Vol 7. 2016. Leddon SARichards KATreanor JJSant AJ Abundance and specificity of influenza reactive circulating memory follicular helper and non-follicular helper CD4 T cells in healthy adults.; Immunology; Vol 146(1). 2015 Sep. Richards KANayak JChaves FADiPiazza AKnowlden ZAAlam STreanor JJSant AJ Seasonal Influenza Can Poise Hosts for CD4 T-Cell Immunity to H7N9 Avian Influenza.; The Journal of infectious diseases; Vol 212(1). 2015 Jul 1. Nayak JLRichards KAYang HTreanor JJSant AJ Effect of influenza A(H5N1) vaccine prepandemic priming on CD4+ T-cell responses.; The Journal of infectious diseases; Vol 211(9). 2015 May 1. Alam SKnowlden ZASangster MYSant AJ CD4 T cell help is limiting and selective during the primary B cell response to influenza virus infection.; Journal of virology; Vol 88(1). 2014 Jan. Weilhammer DRBlanchette CDFischer NOAlam SLoots GGCorzett MThomas CLychak CDunkle ADRuitenberg JJGhanekar SASant AJRasley A The use of nanolipoprotein particles to enhance the immunostimulatory properties of innate immune agonists against lethal influenza challenge.; Biomaterials; Vol 34(38). 2013 Dec. Nayak JLAlam SSant AJ Cutting edge: Heterosubtypic influenza infection antagonizes elicitation of immunological reactivity to hemagglutinin.; Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950); Vol 191(3). 2013 Aug 1. Tung JSant AJ Orchestration of CD4 T cell epitope preferences after multipeptide immunization.; Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950); Vol 191(2). 2013 Jul 15. Nayak JLFitzgerald TFRichards KAYang HTreanor JJSant AJ CD4+ T-cell expansion predicts neutralizing antibody responses to monovalent, inactivated 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus subtype H1N1 vaccine.; The Journal of infectious diseases; Vol 207(2). 2013 Jan 15. Sant AJChaves FALeddon SATung J The control of the specificity of CD4 T cell responses: thresholds, breakpoints, and ceilings.; Frontiers in immunology; Vol 4. 2013. Richards KAChaves FAAlam SSant AJ Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines induce broad immunological reactivity to both internal virion components and influenza surface proteins.; Vaccine; Vol 31(1). 2012 Dec 17. Nayak JLSant AJ Loss in CD4 T-cell responses to multiple epitopes in influenza due to expression of one additional MHC class II molecule in the host.; Immunology; Vol 136(4). 2012 Aug. Sant AJMcMichael A Revealing the role of CD4(+) T cells in viral immunity.; The Journal of experimental medicine; Vol 209(8). 2012 Jul 30. Chaves FALee AHNayak JLRichards KASant AJ The utility and limitations of current Web-available algorithms to predict peptides recognized by CD4 T cells in response to pathogen infection.; Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950); Vol 188(9). 2012 May 1. Engels BChervin ASSant AJKranz DMSchreiber H Long-term persistence of CD4(+) but rapid disappearance of CD8(+) T cells expressing an MHC class I-restricted TCR of nanomolar affinity.; Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy; Vol 20(3). 2012 Mar. Leddon SASant AJ The peptide specificity of the endogenous T follicular helper cell repertoire generated after protein immunization.; PloS one; Vol 7(10). 2012. Sundararajan AHuan LRichards KAMarcelin GAlam SJoo HYang HWebby RJTopham DJSant AJSangster MY Host differences in influenza-specific CD4 T cell and B cell responses are modulated by viral strain and route of immunization.; PloS one; Vol 7(3). 2012. Alam SSant AJ Infection with seasonal influenza virus elicits CD4 T cells specific for genetically conserved epitopes that can be rapidly mobilized for protective immunity to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.; Journal of virology; Vol 85(24). 2011 Dec. Richards KAChaves FASant AJ The memory phase of the CD4 T-cell response to influenza virus infection maintains its diverse antigen specificity.; Immunology; Vol 133(2). 2011 Jun. Nayak JLSant AJ T cell immunology for the clinician.; The Pediatric infectious disease journal; Vol 30(3). 2011 Mar. Richards KATopham DChaves FASant AJ Cutting edge: CD4 T cells generated from encounter with seasonal influenza viruses and vaccines have broad protein specificity and can directly recognize naturally generated epitopes derived from the live pandemic H1N1 virus.; Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950); Vol 185(9). 2010 Nov 1. Leddon SASant AJ Generation of MHC class II-peptide ligands for CD4 T-cell allorecognition of MHC class II molecules.; Current opinion in organ transplantation; Vol 15(4). 2010 Aug. Desmet EAHollenbaugh JASime PJWright TWTopham DJSant AJTakimoto TDewhurst SMaggirwar SB Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 deficiency delays viral clearance in the lung and is associated with diminished influenza-induced cytopathic effect in infected cells.; Virology; Vol 400(2). 2010 May 10. Nayak JLRichards KAChaves FASant AJ Analyses of the specificity of CD4 T cells during the primary immune response to influenza virus reveals dramatic MHC-linked asymmetries in reactivity to individual viral proteins.; Viral immunology; Vol 23(2). 2010 Apr. Weaver JMSant AJ Understanding the focused CD4 T cell response to antigen and pathogenic organisms.; Immunologic research; Vol 45(2-3). 2009 Dec. Richards KAChaves FASant AJ Infection of HLA-DR1 transgenic mice with a human isolate of influenza a virus (H1N1) primes a diverse CD4 T-cell repertoire that includes CD4 T cells with heterosubtypic cross-reactivity to avian (H5N1) influenza virus.; Journal of virology; Vol 83(13). 2009 Jul. Weaver JMChaves FASant AJ Abortive activation of CD4 T cell responses during competitive priming in vivo.; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; Vol 106(21). 2009 May 26.