Skip to content
Home
Alex V. Levin, M.D., M.H.Sc.

Alex V. Levin, M.D., M.H.Sc.

Contact

Connect with Alex V. Levin, M.D., M.H.Sc.

About Me

Alex Levin, MD, MHSc, provides expert medical and surgical care to infants, children and adolescents suffering from pediatric anterior segment eye conditions (cataract, glaucoma, uveitis) as well as adults and children with genetic eye disease. As Chief of the Eye Institute’s Pediatric Ophthalmolog...
Alex Levin, MD, MHSc, provides expert medical and surgical care to infants, children and adolescents suffering from pediatric anterior segment eye conditions (cataract, glaucoma, uveitis) as well as adults and children with genetic eye disease. As Chief of the Eye Institute’s Pediatric Ophthalmology and Ocular Genetics team, and Chief of Clinical Genetics at URMC, he integrates his clinical expertise in treating eye disease with his scientific curiosity in understanding their genesis. Working with cross-functional teams of ophthalmologists, optometrists, pediatric specialists, geneticists, nurses, diagnostic technisicans and genetic counselors, he offers the most advanced compassionate care and advice to his patients and their families.

Dr. Levin received his medical degree from Jefferson Medical College. He completed a residency in pediatrics at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia followed by a residency in ophthalmology at Wills Eye Hospital. He went on to complete a fellowship in pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus at Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children, where he also earned a Masters of Health Science in bioethics. He is the only physician worldwide to simultaneously hold US Board Certifications in pediatrics, ophthalmology and child abuse pediatrics

Dr. Levin treats a variety of conditions including hereditary maculopathies, retinal dystrophies and other ocular genetic disorders, pediatric cataract, pediatric uveitis, pediatric glaucoma, and ocular manifestations of child abuse.

Faculty Appointments

Professor - Department of Ophthalmology (SMD)

Adeline Lutz - Steven S.T. Ching, M.D. Distinguished Professor in Ophthalmology - Department of Ophthalmology (SMD)

Professor - Center for Visual Science A&S (RC) - Joint

Professor - Department of Pediatrics, Genetics (SMD) - Joint

Credentials

Post-doctoral Training & Residency

Fellowship, Ophthalmology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada). 1989 - 1990

Residency, Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Hospital. 1986 - 1989

Residency, Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. 1983 - 1984

Internship, Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. 1982 - 1983

Education

MA | University of Toronto (Canada). 2001

Awards

Resident Guardian Award. 2022

The Edward A. Jaeger and John B. Jeffers Citizenship Award. 2020

Pennsylvania Magazine Top Ophthalmologist. 2019 - 2020

New Jersey's Favorite Kids' Docs. 2018

Philadelphia Magazine Top Doctor, Ophthalmology. 2018 - 2020

Albert Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award. 2018

The Children's Glaucoma Foundation Honoree. 2017

International Association of Ophthalmologists, Top Ophthalmologist in Philadelphia. 2017

The American Registry Most Honored Professionals Award. 2016

Lifetime Achievement Award. 2016

Best Doctors in America. 2015 - 2018

Delaware Valley Consumers' Checkbook Top Doctors in the Delaware Valley Area. 2015

Castle Connolly Top Doctor. 2015 - 2016

Al Biglan Medal in Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2014

American Ophthalmological Society. 2014

Alumni Achievement Award in Science. 2013

University of Toronto Joint Ventre for Bioethics Honours and Awards Day, Best Poster. 2013

Patients Choice Award: America's Most Compassionate Doctors. 2013

e Lange Society Award. 2013

Patients Choice Award. 2012

Doximity SuperDoctors.com Top Doctor. 2012 - 2013

Claud Worth Silver Medal. 2012

Consumers' Research Council of America, America's Top Ophthalmologists. 2012 - 2013

Jefferson Medical College Community Service Award. 2012

Dr. Laird Jackson Award. 2012

Philadelphia Super Doctor. 2012 - 2013

Best Doctors in America. 2011 - 2016

US News & World Report Top Doctor. 2011

Castle Connolly Top Doctor. 2011 - 2013

Sturge-Weber Foundation, Champion Award. 2011

Best Doctors in America, South Jersey Magazine. 2011 - 2012

Ray E. Helfer Society Award for Distinguished Contributions in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect. 2011

Centro Genética Clínica Genetics Award for Excellence. 2010

Senior Honor Award. 2010

5th place Resident presentations. 2010

Best Doctors in America, Philadelphia Metro Area, Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2009 - 2016

Fellow, The College of Physicians of Philadelph. 2009

American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2009

National Center for Shaken Baby Syndrome Recognition Award for Outstanding Leadership and Support. 2008

Who's Who Among Executives and Professionals. 2008 - 2009

Visionary Award. 2008

Department of Ophthalmology, J. D. Morin Award. 2007

Best Doctors in Canada. 2007 - 2008

James C. Fallis Teaching Award. 2007

Corresponding (Honorary) Member. 2006

American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Fellowship Research Award. 2006

Leading Health Professionals of the World. 2005

University of Toronto, Department of Ophthalmology,. 2005

Appreciation Award ("For Going Above and Beyond"). 2004

Dean's Excellence Fund ($20,000). 2003 - 2004

Teacher of the Year Award. 2003 - 2005

Surgeon of the Year Award. 2003

Best Grand Rounds. 2003 - 2004

Pediatric Glaucoma and Cataract Family Association Award. 2003

Dean's Excellence Fund ($20,000). 2002 - 2003

Achievement Award. 2002

Shankweiler Society (Outstanding Alumni Award, formerly Physician Hall of Fame). 2001

Distinguished Service Award. 2001

David Fear Fellowship in Continuing Medical Education ($3000). 2000

Israel Ophthalmological Society Meeting, Best Presentation. 2000

Canadian National Institute for the Blind, White Cane Week Award. 2000

Clinical Traineeship Award. 1999 - 2001

Award for Excellence for the Best Oral Presentation, Canadian Pediatric Society Meeting. 1997

The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery Annual Research Competition. 1997

Canadian Medical Association Journal, Logie Medical Ethics Essay Award. 1996

American Medical Association, Physician's Recognition Award. 1988

Jefferson Medical College, Edward J. Moore Memorial Prize in Pediatrics. 1982

Research

With more than 35 years in pediatrics, pediatric ophthalmology and ocular genetics, Dr. Levin has built an impressive research portfolio in basic and translational research. His efforts have resulted in hundreds of peer-reviewed publications and abstracts, helping to advance the understanding and tr...
With more than 35 years in pediatrics, pediatric ophthalmology and ocular genetics, Dr. Levin has built an impressive research portfolio in basic and translational research. His efforts have resulted in hundreds of peer-reviewed publications and abstracts, helping to advance the understanding and treatment of eye disease and related developmental anomalies, pediatric genetics, and in the improvement of health care delivery and public health. Funded by the National Institutes for Health, the Canadian Institute of Health, and private foundations, Dr. Levin’s current areas of interest include:

• Ocular Genetics and gene therapy
• Children’s Vision Screening
• Pediatric Glaucoma, Cataract and uveitis
• Ocular manifestations of Child Abuse
• Bioethics

Publications

Journal Articles

DEVELOPMENT OF A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR PEDIATRIC ATOPIC DERMATITIS - A RETROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL NATIONWIDE DATABASE STUDY.

Landau T, Gamrasni K, Levin A, Barlev Y, Sanders O, Benor S, Brandwein M

Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology.. 2024 June 18 Epub 06/18/2024.

Retinal hemorrhage variation in inertial versus contact head injuries.

Sokoloff M, Feldman KW, Levin AV, Rockter A, Armijo-Garcia V, Musick M, Weeks K, Haney SB, Marinello M, Herman BE, Frazier TN, Carroll CL, Hymel KP,

Child abuse & neglect.. 2023 December 21149 :106606. Epub 12/21/2023.

Mutations in associated with Retinitis pigmentosa.

Paredes DI, Bello NR, Capasso JE, Procopio R, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2023 December 11 :1-6. Epub 12/11/2023.

TWO CASES OF CRB1-RELATED RETINAL DYSTROPHY ASSOCIATED WITH RETINAL MASSES.

Bello NR, Pisuchpen P, de Guimarães TAC, Capasso JE, Levin AV

Retinal cases & brief reports.. 2023 November 117 (6):714-718. Epub 1900 01 01.

Deep Learning Approach for Differentiating Etiologies of Pediatric Retinal Hemorrhages: A Multicenter Study.

Khosravi P, Huck NA, Shahraki K, Hunter SC, Danza CN, Kim SY, Forbes BJ, Dai S, Levin AV, Binenbaum G, Chang PD, Suh DW

International journal of molecular sciences.. 2023 October 1224 (20)Epub 10/12/2023.

Identification and Management of a Novel PRDM5 Gene Pathologic Variant in a Family With Brittle Cornea Syndrome.

Sklar BA, Pisuchpen P, Bareket M, Milman T, Eagle RC, Minor J, Procopio R, Capasso J, Levin AV, Hammersmith K

Cornea.. 2023 September 15 Epub 09/15/2023.

Changes in nascent chromatin structure regulate activation of the pro-fibrotic transcriptome and myofibroblast emergence in organ fibrosis.

Basta MD, Petruk S, Summer R, Rosenbloom J, Wermuth PJ, Macarak E, Levin AV, Mazo A, Walker JL

iScience.. 2023 May 1926 (5):106570. Epub 04/06/2023.

SOX2 pathogenic variants with normal eyes: Expanding the phenotypic spectrum.

Okoye O, Capasso J, Kopinsky SM, Amlie-Wolf L, Levin AV, Schneider A

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2023 May 10 Epub 05/10/2023.

A study of disparities in access to genetic care pre- and post-pandemic.

Macalino AJ, Porter RS, Smith L, Wang H, Levin AV

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2023 March 27 Epub 03/27/2023.

Ophthalmic imaging in abusive head trauma.

Macher J, Porter RS, Levin AV

Child abuse & neglect.. 2023 March 1139 :106106. Epub 03/01/2023.

Clinical outcomes in children and adolescents referred for increased cup:disk ratio at a tertiary referral center.

Al-Holou SN, Wong MOM, Zhang QE, Sharpe JE, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2023 February 15 Epub 02/15/2023.

Use of the World Health Organization primary eye care protocol to investigate the ocular health status of school children in Rwanda.

Mathenge WC, Bello NR, Hess OM, Dangou JM, Nkurikye J, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2023 January 13 Epub 01/13/2023.

Novel CRB1 pathogenic variant in Chuuk families with Leber congenital amaurosis.

Albakri A, Pisuchpen P, Capasso JE, Schneider A, Kopinsky S, Glaser T, Chiang JP, Yomai AA, McNear D, Levin AV

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2023 January 3 Epub 01/03/2023.

Genetic testing: Getting it right.

Paredes DI, Haefeli LM, Okoye O, Capasso JE, Wyman C, Khetan V, Levin AV

Oman journal of ophthalmology.. 2023 16 (1):1-3. Epub 02/21/2023.

Protein modeling and in silico analysis to assess pathogenicity of variants in patients with inherited retinal disease.

Cevik S, Wangtiraumnuay N, Van Schelvergem K, Tsukikawa M, Capasso J, Biswas SB, Bodt B, Levin AV, Biswas-Fiss E

Molecular vision.. 2023 29 :217-233. Epub 10/25/2023.

Genetics of the anterior segment dysgenesis.

Paredes DI, Capasso JE, Wyman CS, Levin AV

Taiwan journal of ophthalmology.. 2023 13 (4):500-504. Epub 07/18/2023.

Severe Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy, Congenital Hearing Loss, and Developmental Delay in a Child With Biallelic Variants in FZD4.

van der Ende SR, Meyers BS, Capasso JE, Sasongko M, Yonekawa Y, Pihlblad M, Huey J, Bedoukian EC, Krantz ID, Ngo MH, McMaster CR, Levin AV, Robitaille JM

JAMA ophthalmology.. 2022 August 11 Epub 08/11/2022.

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome: more than meets the eye.

Reis LM, Maheshwari M, Capasso J, Atilla H, Dudakova L, Thompson S, Zitano L, Lay-Son G, Lowry RB, Black J, Lee J, Shue A, Kremlikova Pourova R, Vaneckova M, Skalicka P, Jedlickova J, Trkova M, Williams B, Richard G, Bachman K, Seeley AH, Costakos D, Glaser TM, Levin AV, Liskova P, Murray JC, Semina EV

Journal of medical genetics.. 2022 July 26 Epub 07/26/2022.

Experiences of genetic testing among individuals with retinitis pigmentosa.

Krauss E, Macher J, Capasso J, Bernhardt B, Ali-KhanCatts Z, Levin A, Brandt R

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2022 July 7 :1-8. Epub 07/07/2022.

The risk of uveitis due to prostaglandin analogs in pediatric glaucoma.

Bello NR, LaMattina KC, Minor JM, Utz VM, Dong K, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2022 May 9 Epub 05/09/2022.

Retinal hemorrhage after pediatric neurosurgical procedures.

Chung CW, Levin AV, Forbes BJ, Binenbaum G

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2022 March 15 Epub 03/15/2022.

Congenital primary aphakia.

Ernst J, Medsinge A, Scanga HL, Hiasat J, Moore W, Ali A, Levin AV, Stahl ED, Nischal KK

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2022 January 17 Epub 01/17/2022.

Elucidating the clinical spectrum and molecular basis of HYAL2 deficiency.

Fasham J, Lin S, Ghosh P, Radio FC, Farrow EG, Thiffault I, Kussman J, Zhou D, Hemming R, Zahka K, Chioza BA, Rawlins LE, Wenger OK, Gunning AC, Pizzi S, Onesimo R, Zampino G, Barker E, Osawa N, Rodriguez MC, Neuhann TM, Zackai EH, Keena B, Capasso J, Levin AV, Bhoj E, Li D, Hakonarson H, Wentzensen IM, Jackson A, Chandler KE, Coban-Akdemir ZH, Posey JE, Banka S, Lupski JR, Sheppard SE, Tartaglia M, Triggs-Raine B, Crosby AH, Baple EL

Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics.. 2021 November 30 Epub 11/30/2021.

Comprehensive phenotypic and functional analysis of dominant and recessive FOXE3 alleles in ocular developmental disorders.

Reis LM, Sorokina EA, Dudakova L, Moravikova J, Skalicka P, Malinka F, Seese SE, Thompson S, Bardakjian T, Capasso J, Allen W, Glaser T, Levin AV, Schneider A, Khan A, Liskova P, Semina EV

Human molecular genetics.. 2021 May 27 Epub 05/27/2021.

A review on clotting disorders and retinal hemorrhages: Can they mimic abuse?

Thau A, Saffren B, Anderst JD, Carpenter SL, Levin AV

Child abuse & neglect.. 2021 May 25118 :105070. Epub 05/25/2021.

A novel de novo intronic variant in ITPR1 causes Gillespie syndrome.

Keehan L, Jiang MM, Li X, Marom R, Dai H, Murdock D, Liu P, Hunter JV, Heaney JD, Robak L, Emrick L, Lotze T, Blieden LS, , Lewis RA, Levin AV, Capasso J, Craigen WJ, Rosenfeld JA, Lee B, Burrage LC

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2021 May 5 Epub 05/05/2021.

Falsely high rebound tonometry.

Saffren B, Price JM, Zhang QE, Hamershock RA, Sharpe J, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2021 April 23 Epub 04/23/2021.

Persistent epithelial defect after photorefractive keratectomy in a patient with autism.

Ramirez MKC, Minor JM, Levin AV, Paysse EA, Wasserman BN

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2021 April 22 Epub 04/22/2021.

Optic Nerve Aplasia.

Saffren BD, Yassin SH, Geddie BE, de Faber JTHN, Blieden LS, Bhate M, Gamio S, Rutar T, Levin AV

Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society.. 2021 April 14 Epub 04/14/2021.

CNGB1-related rod-cone dystrophy: a mutation review and update.

Nassisi M, Smirnov V, Hernandez CS, Mohand-Saïd S, Condroyer C, Antonio A, Kühlewein L, Kempf M, Kohl S, Wissinger B, Nasser F, Ragi SD, Wang NK, Sparrow JR, Greenstein V, Michalakis S, Mahroo O, Ba-Abbad R, Michaelides M, Webster AR, Esposti SD, Saffren B, Capasso J, Levin A, Hauswirth WW, Dhaenens CM, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Tsang SH, Zrenner E, Sahel JA, Petersen-Jones S, Zeitz C, Audo I

Human mutation.. 2021 April 12 Epub 04/12/2021.

Resident immune cells of the avascular lens: Mediators of the injury and fibrotic response of the lens.

Menko AS, DeDreu J, Logan CM, Paulson H, Levin AV, Walker JL

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.. 2021 April 35 (4):e21341. Epub 1900 01 01.

Multicenter Research Data of Epilepsy Management in Patients With Sturge-Weber Syndrome.

Smegal LF, Sebold AJ, Hammill AM, Juhász C, Lo WD, Miles DK, Wilfong AA, Levin AV, Fisher B, Ball KL, Pinto AL, Comi AM,

Pediatric neurology.. 2021 March 5119 :3-10. Epub 03/05/2021.

Reducing the Costs of an Eye Care Adherence Program for Underserved Children Referred Through Inner-City Vision Screenings.

Chung SA, Snitzer M, Prioli KM, Pizzi LT, Zhang Q, Levin AV

American journal of ophthalmology.. 2021 February 11 Epub 02/11/2021.

Retinal hemorrhage and bleeding disorders in children: A review.

Thau A, Saffren B, Zakrzewski H, Anderst JD, Carpenter SL, Levin A

Child abuse & neglect.. 2021 January 2112 :104901. Epub 01/02/2021.

Stargardt misdiagnosis: How ocular genetics helps.

Ibanez MB, de Guimarães TAC, Capasso J, Bello N, Levin AV

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2020 December 24 Epub 12/24/2020.

Early Experience with Netarsudil in Pediatric Patients: A Retrospective Case Series.

Rapuano PB, Levin AV, Price JM, Myers JS, Lee D, Shukla AG

Ophthalmology. Glaucoma.. 2020 October 13 Epub 10/13/2020.

Referral outcomes from a vision screening program for school-aged children.

Silverstein M, Scharf K, Mayro EL, Hark LA, Snitzer M, Anhalt J, Pond M, Siam L, Tran J, Hill-Bennett T, Zhan T, Levin AV

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2020 August 6 Epub 08/06/2020.

Treatment of Port Wine Birthmarks in Sturge-Weber Syndrome Using Topical Timolol.

Saffren B, Yassin SH, Guo S, Cordovez JA, Levin AV

Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus.. 2020 February 2258 :e1-e4. Epub 02/22/2020.

Impact of eyeglasses on academic performance in primary school children.

Hark LA, Thau A, Nutaitis A, Mayro EL, Zhan T, Dabbish N, Tran J, Siam L, Pond M, Rice AR, Levin AV

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2020 February 55 (1):52-57. Epub 09/13/2019.

PATHOLOGY OF PERIMACULAR FOLDS DUE TO VITREORETINAL TRACTION IN ABUSIVE HEAD TRAUMA.

Abed Alnabi W, Tang GJ, Eagle RC, Gulino S, Thau A, Levin AV

Retina.. 2019 November 39 (11):2141-2148. Epub 1900 01 01.

Optical Coherence Tomography in Knobloch Syndrome.

Thau A, Tsukikawa M, Wangtiraumnuay N, Capasso J, Affel E, Alnabi WA, Adam M, Alsulaiman SM, Spirn M, Levin AV

Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging retina.. 2019 August 150 (8):e203-e210. Epub 1900 01 01.

Central Corneal Thickness in Childhood Cataract.

Thau A, Dawodu O, Mireskandari K, Ali A, Tehrani N, DeBenedictis C, Bhoiwala D, Aultman W, Alnabi WA, Leiby BE, Levin AV

Cornea.. 2019 August 38 (8):1003-1005. Epub 1900 01 01.

Survey of practice patterns for the management of ophthalmic genetic disorders among AAPOS members: report by the AAPOS Genetic Eye Disease Task Force.

Drack AV, Miraldi Utz V, Wang K, Alcorn DM, Brooks BP, Costakos DM, Couser NL, Heon E, Levin AV, Lloyd IC, Morse CL, Schmitt MA, Whitman MC, Traboulsi EI

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2019 August 23 (4):226-228.e1. Epub 06/21/2019.

Association of Preoperative Disclosure of Resident Roles With Informed Consent for Cataract Surgery in a Teaching Program.

Corwin AM, Rajkumar JN, Markovitz BJ, Thau A, Wisner DM, Spandorfer JM, Leiby BE, Bailey R, Spaeth GL, Levin AV

JAMA ophthalmology.. 2019 July 25 Epub 07/25/2019.

Physical and Family History Variables Associated With Neurological and Cognitive Development in Sturge-Weber Syndrome.

Day AM, McCulloch CE, Hammill AM, Juhász C, Lo WD, Pinto AL, Miles DK, Fisher BJ, Ball KL, Wilfong AA, Levin AV, Thau AJ, Comi AM, , Koenig JI, Lawton MT, Marchuk DA, Moses MA, Freedman SF, Pevsner J

Pediatric neurology.. 2019 July 96 :30-36. Epub 12/20/2018.

Glaucoma and degenerative vitreoretinopathy in a girl with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome.

Sethi S, Thau A, Kaplan P, Asher SB, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2019 June 23 (3):169-171. Epub 01/29/2019.

Paradoxical response to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in patients with intraretinal cystoid spaces.

Guimaraes TAC, Capasso JE, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2019 June 40 (3):213-218. Epub 07/02/2019.

An update of ophthalmic management in craniosynostosis.

Ganesh A, Edmond J, Forbes B, Katowitz WR, Nischal KK, Miller M, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2019 April 23 (2):66-76. Epub 03/27/2019.

Retinal Findings in Young Children With Increased Intracranial Pressure From Nontraumatic Causes.

Shi A, Kulkarni A, Feldman KW, Weiss A, McCourt EA, Schloff S, Partington M, Forbes B, Geddie BE, Bierbrauer K, Phillips PH, Rogers DL, Abed Alnabi W, Binenbaum G, Levin AV

Pediatrics.. 2019 February 143 (2)Epub 01/10/2019.

Ophthalmologic findings in the Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

Shi A, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2019 February 40 (1):1-6. Epub 02/15/2019.

Ophthalmic manifestations associated with RARB mutations.

Wangtiraumnuay N, Kopinsky S, Iyer P, Capasso J, Whitehead R, Schneider A, Levin AV

Clinical dysmorphology.. 2019 January 28 (1):46-49. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ocular hypotony: A comprehensive review.

Wang Q, Thau A, Levin AV, Lee D

Survey of ophthalmology.. 2019 64 (5):619-638. Epub 04/25/2019.

Traumatic macular retinoschisis in infants and children.

Shouldice M, Al-Khattabi F, Thau A, McIntyre S, Ng WKY, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2018 December 22 (6):433-437.e2. Epub 10/28/2018.

Diagnosis and management of Cornelia de Lange syndrome: first international consensus statement.

Kline AD, Moss JF, Selicorni A, Bisgaard AM, Deardorff MA, Gillett PM, Ishman SL, Kerr LM, Levin AV, Mulder PA, Ramos FJ, Wierzba J, Ajmone PF, Axtell D, Blagowidow N, Cereda A, Costantino A, Cormier-Daire V, FitzPatrick D, Grados M, Groves L, Guthrie W, Huisman S, Kaiser FJ, Koekkoek G, Levis M, Mariani M, McCleery JP, Menke LA, Metrena A, O'Connor J, Oliver C, Pie J, Piening S, Potter CJ, Quaglio AL, Redeker E, Richman D, Rigamonti C, Shi A, Tümer Z, Van Balkom IDC, Hennekam RC

Nature reviews. Genetics.. 2018 October 19 (10):649-666. Epub 1900 01 01.

New classification system for pediatric glaucoma: implications for clinical care and a research registry.

Thau A, Lloyd M, Freedman S, Beck A, Grajewski A, Levin AV

Current opinion in ophthalmology.. 2018 September 29 (5):385-394. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ocular manifestations of Emanuel syndrome.

Saffren BD, Capasso JE, Zanolli M, Levin AV

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2018 September 176 (9):1964-1967. Epub 09/04/2018.

Ocular manifestations of PACS1 mutation.

Pefkianaki M, Schneider A, Capasso JE, Wasserman BN, Bardakjian T, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2018 August 22 (4):323-325. Epub 03/14/2018.

Efficacy and outcomes of a summer-based pediatric vision screening program.

Hark LA, Shiuey E, Yu M, Tran E, Mayro EL, Zhan T, Pond M, Tran J, Siam L, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2018 August 22 (4):309.e1-309.e7. Epub 08/08/2018.

The Eye Examination in the Evaluation of Child Abuse.

Christian CW, Levin AV, , , , ,

Pediatrics.. 2018 August 142 (2)Epub 1900 01 01.

Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among school-age children in the School District of Philadelphia.

Mayro EL, Hark LA, Shiuey E, Pond M, Siam L, Hill-Bennett T, Tran J, Khanna N, Silverstein M, Donaghy J, Zhan T, Murchison AP, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2018 June 22 (3):214-217.e2. Epub 04/13/2018.

Ophthalmic manifestations of Heimler syndrome due to PEX6 mutations.

Wangtiraumnuay N, Alnabi WA, Tsukikawa M, Thau A, Capasso J, Sharony R, Inglehearn CF, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2018 June 39 (3):384-390. Epub 1900 01 01.

Patients and animal models of CNG?1-deficient retinitis pigmentosa support gene augmentation approach.

Petersen-Jones SM, Occelli LM, Winkler PA, Lee W, Sparrow JR, Tsukikawa M, Boye SL, Chiodo V, Capasso JE, Becirovic E, Schön C, Seeliger MW, Levin AV, Michalakis S, Hauswirth WW, Tsang SH

The Journal of clinical investigation.. 2018 January 2128 (1):190-206. Epub 11/20/2017.

Novel ABCA4 mutation leads to loss of a conserved C-terminal motif: implications for predicting pathogenicity based on genetic testing.

Wangtiraumnuay N, Capasso J, Tsukikawa M, Levin A, Biswas-Fiss E

European journal of ophthalmology.. 2018 January 28 (1):123-126. Epub 02/19/2018.

Robert Reinecke obituary

Levin, AV.

J AAPOS. 2018; 22(6): 486.

Mutations of conserved non-coding elements of PITX2 in patients with ocular dysgenesis and developmental glaucoma.

Protas ME, Weh E, Footz T, Kasberger J, Baraban SC, Levin AV, Katz LJ, Ritch R, Walter MA, Semina EV, Gould DB

Human molecular genetics.. 2017 September 1526 (18):3630-3638. Epub 1900 01 01.

The SBU report: a different view.

Levin AV

Acta paediatrica.. 2017 July 106 (7):1037-1039. Epub 04/19/2017.

Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus fellowship Match outcomes, 2000-2015.

Dotan G, Karr DJ, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2017 June 21 (3):181.e1-181.e8. Epub 05/18/2017.

Marfan Syndrome: Staging Nonsurgical vs Surgical Treatments in Children With Subluxated Lenses and Refractive Problems.

Paul Chan RV, Khan AO, Levin AV, Paysse EA, DeRespinis PA

Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus.. 2017 March 154 (2):70-73. Epub 1900 01 01.

The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies.

Redin C, Brand H, Collins RL, Kammin T, Mitchell E, Hodge JC, Hanscom C, Pillalamarri V, Seabra CM, Abbott MA, Abdul-Rahman OA, Aberg E, Adley R, Alcaraz-Estrada SL, Alkuraya FS, An Y, Anderson MA, Antolik C, Anyane-Yeboa K, Atkin JF, Bartell T, Bernstein JA, Beyer E, Blumenthal I, Bongers EM, Brilstra EH, Brown CW, Brüggenwirth HT, Callewaert B, Chiang C, Corning K, Cox H, Cuppen E, Currall BB, Cushing T, David D, Deardorff MA, Dheedene A, D'Hooghe M, de Vries BB, Earl DL, Ferguson HL, Fisher H, FitzPatrick DR, Gerrol P, Giachino D, Glessner JT, Gliem T, Grady M, Graham BH, Griffis C, Gripp KW, Gropman AL, Hanson-Kahn A, Harris DJ, Hayden MA, Hill R, Hochstenbach R, Hoffman JD, Hopkin RJ, Hubshman MW, Innes AM, Irons M, Irving M, Jacobsen JC, Janssens S, Jewett T, Johnson JP, Jongmans MC, Kahler SG, Koolen DA, Korzelius J, Kroisel PM, Lacassie Y, Lawless W, Lemyre E, Leppig K, Levin AV, Li H, Li H, Liao EC, Lim C, Lose EJ, Lucente D, Macera MJ, Manavalan P, Mandrile G, Marcelis CL, Margolin L, Mason T, Masser-Frye D, McClellan MW, Mendoza CJ, Menten B, Middelkamp S, Mikami LR, Moe E, Mohammed S, Mononen T, Mortenson ME, Moya G, Nieuwint AW, Ordulu Z, Parkash S, Pauker SP, Pereira S, Perrin D, Phelan K, Aguilar RE, Poddighe PJ, Pregno G, Raskin S, Reis L, Rhead W, Rita D, Renkens I, Roelens F, Ruliera J, Rump P, Schilit SL, Shaheen R, Sparkes R, Spiegel E, Stevens B, Stone MR, Tagoe J, Thakuria JV, van Bon BW, van de Kamp J, van Der Burgt I, van Essen T, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM, van Roosmalen MJ, Vergult S, Volker-Touw CM, Warburton DP, Waterman MJ, Wiley S, Wilson A, Yerena-de Vega MC, Zori RT, Levy B, Brunner HG, de Leeuw N, Kloosterman WP, Thorland EC, Morton CC, Gusella JF, Talkowski ME

Nature genetics.. 2017 January 49 (1):36-45. Epub 11/14/2016.

Giant Ocular Horn Occurring in a 10-Year-Old Female.

Armstrong BK, Rabinowitz MP, Levin AV, Eagle RC, Snitzer M, Carrasco J

Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery.. 2017 33 (3S Suppl 1):S52-S54. Epub 1900 01 01.

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in Alström syndrome.

Dotan G, Khetan V, Marshall JD, Affel E, Armiger-George D, Naggert JK, Collin GB, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2017 38 (5):440-445. Epub 01/23/2017.

Effect of anesthesia on intraocular pressure measurement in children.

Mikhail M, Sabri K, Levin AV

Survey of ophthalmology.. 2017 62 (5):648-658. Epub 04/22/2017.

Autoimmune retinopathy associated with systemic lupus erythematosus: A diagnostic dilemma.

Wuthisiri W, Lai YH, Capasso J, Blidner M, Salz D, Kruger E, Levin AV

Taiwan journal of ophthalmology.. 2017 7 (3):172-176. Epub 1900 01 01.

Improving access to vision screening in urban Philadelphia elementary schools.

Hark LA, Mayro EL, Tran J, Pond M, Schneider R, Torosian J, Snitzer M, Dabbish N, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2016 October 20 (5):439-443.e1. Epub 09/16/2016.

Anterior Chamber Pathology in Alagille Syndrome.

Ho DK, Levin AV, Anninger WV, Piccoli DA, Eagle RC

Ocular oncology and pathology.. 2016 October 2 (4):270-275. Epub 07/02/2016.

Ethical considerations in gene therapy.

Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2016 September 37 (3):249-51. Epub 02/08/2016.

Teaching ethics to ophthalmology residents: the Halifax Symposium.

Hope WC, LaRoche R, Levin AV

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2016 June 51 (3):188-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

Use of the Delphi process in paediatric cataract management.

Serafino M, Trivedi RH, Levin AV, Wilson ME, Nucci P, Lambert SR, Nischal KK, Plager DA, Bremond-Gignac D, Kekunnaya R, Nishina S, Tehrani NN, Ventura MC

The British journal of ophthalmology.. 2016 May 100 (5):611-5. Epub 09/29/2015.

Leveraging a Sturge-Weber Gene Discovery: An Agenda for Future Research.

Comi AM, Sahin M, Hammill A, Kaplan EH, Juhász C, North P, Ball KL, Levin AV, Cohen B, Morris J, Lo W, Roach ES,

Pediatric neurology.. 2016 May 58 :12-24. Epub 03/16/2016.

How genetics works? An illustrative case report.

Khetan V, Zanolli M, Capasso J, Refice NZ, Neeley K, Levin AV

Indian journal of ophthalmology.. 2016 May 64 (5):399-402. Epub 1900 01 01.

Retinal hemorrhage: science versus speculation.

Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2016 April 20 (2):93-5. Epub 1900 01 01.

Technique for Tube Extender Implantation.

Ho DK, Flannigan KP, Levin AV

Journal of glaucoma.. 2016 March 25 (3):e265-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Organophosphate retinopathy.

Pham H, Lingao MD, Ganesh A, Capasso JE, Keep R, Sadagopan KA, Levin AV

Oman journal of ophthalmology.. 2016 9 (1):49-51. Epub 1900 01 01.

Autosomal-dominant Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by a Heterozygous CRX Mutation in a Father and Son.

Arcot Sadagopan K, Battista R, Keep RB, Capasso JE, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2015 June 36 (2):156-9. Epub 10/04/2013.

Cost and effectiveness of an eye care adherence program for Philadelphia children with significant visual impairment.

Pizzi LT, Snitzer M, Amos T, Prioli KM, Steele D, Levin AV

Population health management.. 2015 June 18 (3):223-31. Epub 02/03/2015.

Early onset ectopia lentis due to a FBN1 mutation with non-penetrance.

Zhang L, Lai YH, Capasso JE, Han S, Levin AV

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2015 June 167 (6):1365-8. Epub 04/21/2015.

Peters anomaly in cri-du-chat syndrome.

Hope WC, Cordovez JA, Capasso JE, Hammersmith KM, Eagle RC, Lall-Trail J, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2015 June 19 (3):277-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

Outcomes of an inner-city vision outreach program: give kids sight day.

Dotan G, Truong B, Snitzer M, McCauley C, Martinez-Helfman S, Santa Maria K, Levin AV

JAMA ophthalmology.. 2015 May 133 (5):527-32. Epub 1900 01 01.

Anirdia-like phenotype caused by 6p25 dosage aberrations.

Sadagopan KA, Liu GT, Capasso JE, Wuthisiri W, Keep RB, Levin AV

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2015 March 167A (3):524-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Sector iris hemangioma in association with diffuse choroidal hemangioma.

Shields CL, Atalay HT, Wuthisiri W, Levin AV, Lally SE, Shields JA

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2015 February 19 (1):83-6. Epub 1900 01 01.

Retinal Dystrophy with Intraretinal Cystoid Spaces Associated with Mutations in the Crumbs Homologue (CRB1) Gene.

Cordovez JA, Traboulsi EI, Capasso JE, Sadagopan KA, Ganesh A, Rychwalski PJ, Neely KA, Brodie SE, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2015 36 (3):257-64. Epub 1900 01 01.

The Eagles Eye Mobile: assessing its ability to deliver eye care in a high-risk community.

Alvi RA, Justason L, Liotta C, Martinez-Helfman S, Dennis K, Croker SP, Leiby BE, Levin AV

Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus.. 2015 52 (2):98-105. Epub 1900 01 01.

Acute Bilateral Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

Khetan V, Zanolli M, Levin AV

Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus.. 2015 52 (4):256. Epub 1900 01 01.

Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly.

Weh E, Reis LM, Happ HC, Levin AV, Wheeler PG, David KL, Carney E, Angle B, Hauser N, Semina EV

Human genetics.. 2014 December 133 (12):1497-511. Epub 09/03/2014.

Unusual retinal abnormalities in sisters with tetralogy of Fallot.

Zanolli MT, Capasso J, Khetan V, Aristimuño B, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2014 December 18 (6):601-4. Epub 10/24/2014.

Retinal hemorrhages: what are we talking about?

Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2014 December 18 (6):521-2. Epub 1900 01 01.

In memoriam Maria Musarella.

Héon E, Levin A, MacDonald IM

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2014 September 35 (3):129. Epub 04/21/2014.

Should patients with ocular genetic disorders have genetic testing?

Zanolli MT, Khetan V, Dotan G, Pizzi L, Levin AV

Current opinion in ophthalmology.. 2014 September 25 (5):359-65. Epub 1900 01 01.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome: further delineation of phenotype, cohesin biology and educational focus, 5th Biennial Scientific and Educational Symposium abstracts.

Kline AD, Calof AL, Schaaf CA, Krantz ID, Jyonouchi S, Yokomori K, Gauze M, Carrico CS, Woodman J, Gerton JL, Vega H, Levin AV, Shirahige K, Champion M, Goodban MT, O'Connor JT, Pipan M, Horsfield J, Deardorff MA, Ishman SL, Dorsett D

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2014 June 164A (6):1384-93. Epub 02/06/2014.

Anterior lentiplane associated with posterior lenticonus and microcornea.

Lingao MD, Liu GT, Gunton K, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2014 April 18 (2):191-2. Epub 1900 01 01.

Red reflex: Procedures and assessments video series.

Levin AV

Canadian family physician Me?decin de famille canadien.. 2014 March 60 (3):257. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ocular manifestations of 22q11.2 microduplication.

Cordovez JA, Capasso J, Lingao MD, Sadagopan KA, Spaeth GL, Wasserman BN, Levin AV

Ophthalmology.. 2014 January 121 (1):392-398. Epub 08/21/2013.

Physician use of white coats in pediatric ophthalmology.

DeBenedictis CN, Liu GT, Nelson LB, Leiby BE, Dai Y, Levin AV

Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus.. 2014 51 (1):13-6. Epub 1900 01 01.

Retinal hemorrhage in abusive head trauma: finding a common language.

Levin AV, Cordovez JA, Leiby BE, Pequignot E, Tandon A

Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society.. 2014 112 :1-10. Epub 1900 01 01.

Pediatric glaucoma terminology.

Ganesh A, Mai DT, Levin AV

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2013 December 161A (12):3205-15. Epub 09/18/2013.

Reply: To PMID 23622446.

Levin AV, Wajda BN, Williams S, Alvi R, McCauley C, Martinez-Helfman S

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2013 December 17 (6):650. Epub 1900 01 01.

Characteristics of femur fractures in ambulatory young children.

Capra L, Levin AV, Howard A, Shouldice M

Emergency medicine journal : EMJ.. 2013 September 30 (9):749-53. Epub 10/04/2012.

Lyonization in ophthalmology.

Wuthisiri W, Lingao MD, Capasso JE, Levin AV

Current opinion in ophthalmology.. 2013 September 24 (5):389-97. Epub 1900 01 01.

Spontaneously resolving macular cyst in an infant.

Ganesh A, Khalighi M, Hammersmith K, Levin AV

Oman journal of ophthalmology.. 2013 September 6 (3):203-5. Epub 1900 01 01.

No evidence for locus heterogeneity in Knobloch syndrome.

Aldahmesh MA, Khan AO, Mohamed JY, Levin AV, Wuthisiri W, Lynch S, McCreery K, Alkuraya FS

Journal of medical genetics.. 2013 August 50 (8):565-6. Epub 05/10/2013.

Patterns of retinal hemorrhage associated with increased intracranial pressure in children.

Binenbaum G, Rogers DL, Forbes BJ, Levin AV, Clark SA, Christian CW, Liu GT, Avery R

Pediatrics.. 2013 August 132 (2):e430-4. Epub 07/22/2013.

Retinal hemorrhage after cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions.

Pham H, Enzenauer RW, Elder JE, Levin AV

The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology.. 2013 June 34 (2):122-4. Epub 1900 01 01.

The challenges to ophthalmologic follow-up care in at-risk pediatric populations.

Williams S, Wajda BN, Alvi R, McCauley C, Martinez-Helfman S, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2013 April 17 (2):140-3. Epub 1900 01 01.

Evaluation and management of nonaccidental head trauma.

Paul Chan RV, Forbes BJ, Levin AV

Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus.. 2013 50 (5):262-4. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ocular anomalies in an infant with Klinefelter Syndrome.

Juhn AT, Nabi NU, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2012 December 33 (4):232-4. Epub 04/09/2012.

PITX2 and FOXC1 spectrum of mutations in ocular syndromes.

Reis LM, Tyler RC, Volkmann Kloss BA, Schilter KF, Levin AV, Lowry RB, Zwijnenburg PJ, Stroh E, Broeckel U, Murray JC, Semina EV

European journal of human genetics : EJHG.. 2012 December 20 (12):1224-33. Epub 05/09/2012.

Genetics for the ophthalmologist.

Sadagopan KA, Capasso J, Levin AV

Oman journal of ophthalmology.. 2012 September 5 (3):144-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

Epiretinal membrane and retinal pigment epithelial lesions in a young child and detection of de novo APC mutation.

Ganesh A, Kaliki S, Levin AV, Shields CL

Archives of ophthalmology.. 2012 August 130 (8):1071-3. Epub 1900 01 01.

Vertically oval corneas in a child with holoprosencephaly.

Lee ES, Wasserman BN, Saslow JG, Schnur RE, Levin AV

Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus.. 2012 July 1749 Online :e30-2. Epub 07/17/2012.

Translocations disrupting PHF21A in the Potocki-Shaffer-syndrome region are associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies.

Kim HG, Kim HT, Leach NT, Lan F, Ullmann R, Silahtaroglu A, Kurth I, Nowka A, Seong IS, Shen Y, Talkowski ME, Ruderfer D, Lee JH, Glotzbach C, Ha K, Kjaergaard S, Levin AV, Romeike BF, Kleefstra T, Bartsch O, Elsea SH, Jabs EW, MacDonald ME, Harris DJ, Quade BJ, Ropers HH, Shaffer LG, Kutsche K, Layman LC, Tommerup N, Kalscheuer VM, Shi Y, Morton CC, Kim CH, Gusella JF

American journal of human genetics.. 2012 July 1391 (1):56-72. Epub 07/05/2012.

Retinal hemorrhages in children: the role of intracranial pressure.

Shiau T, Levin AV

Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine.. 2012 July 1166 (7):623-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Management and outcomes of cataract in children: the Toronto experience.

Lim Z, Rubab S, Chan YH, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2012 June 16 (3):249-54. Epub 1900 01 01.

Resolution of bilateral ptosis after reduction of unilaterally elevated intraocular pressure in a child with Axenfeld-Reiger spectrum disorder.

Soin K, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2012 June 16 (3):307-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Parental comprehension following informed consent for pediatric cataract surgery.

Erraguntla V, De la Huerta I, Vohra S, Abdolell M, Levin AV

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2012 April 47 (2):107-12. Epub 1900 01 01.

The role of prothrombotic factors in the ocular manifestations of abusive and non-abusive head trauma: a feasibility study.

Yu A, Stephens D, Feldman BM, Parkin PC, Kahr WH, Brandão LR, Shouldice M, Levin AV

Child abuse & neglect.. 2012 April 36 (4):333-41. Epub 05/08/2012.

The formal and informal surgical ethics curriculum: views of resident and staff surgeons in Toronto.

Howard F, McKneally MF, Upshur RE, Levin AV

American journal of surgery.. 2012 February 203 (2):258-65. Epub 06/29/2011.

Hypertensive retinopathy in a child caused by pheochromocytoma: identification after a failed school vision screening.

Tibbetts MD, Wise R, Forbes B, Hedrick HL, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2012 February 16 (1):97-9. Epub 01/14/2012.

The role of episcleral venous pressure in glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome.

Shiau T, Armogan N, Yan DB, Thomson HG, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2012 February 16 (1):61-4. Epub 1900 01 01.

Paediatric physician-researchers: coping with tensions in dual accountability.

Boydell K, Shaul RZ, D'Agincourt-Canning L, Da Silva M, Simpson C, Czoli CD, Rashkovan N, Kim CC, Levin AV, Schneider R

Narrative inquiry in bioethics.. 2012 2 (3):213-21. Epub 1900 01 01.

Retinal haemorrhage description tool.

Tandon A, McIntyre S, Yu A, Stephens D, Leiby B, Croker S, Levin AV

The British journal of ophthalmology.. 2011 December 95 (12):1719-22. Epub 10/08/2011.

Cataract and juvenile arthritis.

Sabri K, Saurenmann RK, Silverman ED, Levin AV

Ophthalmology.. 2011 December 118 (12):2524; author reply 2524-5. Epub 1900 01 01.

When will my child go blind? Prognosis versus uncertainty and fear-a conceptual analysis.

Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2011 December 15 (6):521-2. Epub 1900 01 01.

Unilateral keratitis following death of a twin as the presenting sign of herpetic infection in a neonate.

Wang E, Schnall BM, Rotschild T, Gerstenblith AT, Bruno M, Ierardi J, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2011 October 15 (5):489-90. Epub 1900 01 01.

Macular cysts in retinal dystrophy.

Ganesh A, Stroh E, Manayath GJ, Al-Zuhaibi S, Levin AV

Current opinion in ophthalmology.. 2011 September 22 (5):332-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

Juvenile cataract-associated mutation of solute carrier SLC16A12 impairs trafficking of the protein to the plasma membrane.

Castorino JJ, Gallagher-Colombo SM, Levin AV, Fitzgerald PG, Polishook J, Kloeckener-Gruissem B, Ostertag E, Philp NJ

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 2011 August 2952 (9):6774-84. Epub 08/29/2011.

Pediatric IOL calculation.

Mezer E, Levin AV

Ophthalmology.. 2011 June 118 (6):1218-9; author reply 1219. Epub 1900 01 01.

The role of Frizzled-4 mutations in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and Coats disease.

Robitaille JM, Zheng B, Wallace K, Beis MJ, Tatlidil C, Yang J, Sheidow TG, Siebert L, Levin AV, Lam WC, Arthur BW, Lyons CJ, Jaakkola E, Tsilou E, Williams CA, Weaver RG, Shields CL, Guernsey DL

The British journal of ophthalmology.. 2011 April 95 (4):574-9. Epub 11/21/2010.

Fee splitting in ophthalmology.

Levin AV, Ganesh A, Al-Busaidi A

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2011 February 46 (1):21-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Albinism for the busy clinician.

Levin AV, Stroh E

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2011 February 15 (1):59-66. Epub 1900 01 01.

Sequential bilateral dacryocele.

Wasserman BN, Schnall BM, Levin AV

Archives of ophthalmology.. 2011 January 129 (1):104-5. Epub 1900 01 01.

Abusive head trauma: A perpetrator confesses.

Bell E, Shouldice M, Levin AV

Child abuse & neglect.. 2011 January 35 (1):74-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Central corneal thickness in children and adolescents with pediatric glaucoma and eye disorders at risk of developing glaucoma.

Lopez JP, Freedman SF, Muir K, Duncan L, Stephens D, Atenafu E, Levin AV

Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus.. 2011 48 (2):108-16. Epub 05/21/2010.

Choroidal neovascularization secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis in an infant.

Mavrikakis E, Levin AV, Lam WC

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2010 December 45 (6):e11-2. Epub 1900 01 01.

Retinal hemorrhage in abusive head trauma.

Levin AV

Pediatrics.. 2010 November 126 (5):961-70. Epub 10/04/2010.

Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus: something for everyone.

Levin AV

Current opinion in ophthalmology.. 2010 September 21 (5):327-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

The eye examination in the evaluation of child abuse.

Levin AV, Christian CW,

Pediatrics.. 2010 August 126 (2):376-80. Epub 07/26/2010.

Spontaneous disconnection of glaucoma tube shunt extenders.

Dawodu O, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2010 August 14 (4):361-3. Epub 1900 01 01.

Retinal haemorrhage in abusive head trauma.

Morad Y, Wygnansky-Jaffe T, Levin AV

Clinical & experimental ophthalmology.. 2010 July 38 (5):514-20. Epub 03/15/2010.

Pediatric cataract: the Toronto experience-etiology.

Lim Z, Rubab S, Chan YH, Levin AV

American journal of ophthalmology.. 2010 June 149 (6):887-92. Epub 04/28/2010.

Integrating bioethics into postgraduate medical education: the University of Toronto model.

Howard F, McKneally MF, Levin AV

Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges.. 2010 June 85 (6):1035-40. Epub 1900 01 01.

Evaluation and management of retinal hemorrhages in infants with and without abusive head trauma.

Forbes BJ, Rubin SE, Margolin E, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2010 June 14 (3):267-73. Epub 1900 01 01.

Do I have an ethical dilemma?

Levin AV

Oman journal of ophthalmology.. 2010 May 3 (2):49-50. Epub 1900 01 01.

Acute proptosis in a newborn infant: a presentation of infantile dural fistula.

Solarte CE, Levin AV, Armstrong D

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2010 February 14 (1):88-9. Epub 12/31/2009.

The effect of oral acetazolamide on weight gain in children.

Sharan S, Dupuis A, Hébert D, Levin AV

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2010 February 45 (1):41-5. Epub 1900 01 01.

Severe retinal hemorrhages in infants with aggressive, fatal Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis.

Lopez JP, Roque J, Torres J, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2010 February 14 (1):97-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Human TUBB3 mutations perturb microtubule dynamics, kinesin interactions, and axon guidance.

Tischfield MA, Baris HN, Wu C, Rudolph G, Van Maldergem L, He W, Chan WM, Andrews C, Demer JL, Robertson RL, Mackey DA, Ruddle JB, Bird TD, Gottlob I, Pieh C, Traboulsi EI, Pomeroy SL, Hunter DG, Soul JS, Newlin A, Sabol LJ, Doherty EJ, de Uzcátegui CE, de Uzcátegui N, Collins ML, Sener EC, Wabbels B, Hellebrand H, Meitinger T, de Berardinis T, Magli A, Schiavi C, Pastore-Trossello M, Koc F, Wong AM, Levin AV, Geraghty MT, Descartes M, Flaherty M, Jamieson RV, Møller HU, Meuthen I, Callen DF, Kerwin J, Lindsay S, Meindl A, Gupta ML, Pellman D, Engle EC

Cell.. 2010 January 8140 (1):74-87. Epub 1900 01 01.

Evidence outweighs belief.

Alexander R, Barr RG, Block R, Case M, Chadwick DL, Holmgren B, Jenny C, Leventhal JM, Levin A, Reece R, Wheeler P, Barr M

Minnesota medicine.. 2010 January 93 (1):5-6. Epub 1900 01 01.

Genotyping microarray for CSNB-associated genes.

Zeitz C, Labs S, Lorenz B, Forster U, Uksti J, Kroes HY, De Baere E, Leroy BP, Cremers FP, Wittmer M, van Genderen MM, Sahel JA, Audo I, Poloschek CM, Mohand-Saïd S, Fleischhauer JC, Hüffmeier U, Moskova-Doumanova V, Levin AV, Hamel CP, Leifert D, Munier FL, Schorderet DF, Zrenner E, Friedburg C, Wissinger B, Kohl S, Berger W

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 2009 December 50 (12):5919-26. Epub 07/02/2009.

Pathology of retinal hemorrhage in abusive head trauma.

Wygnanski-Jaffe T, Morad Y, Levin AV

Forensic science, medicine, and pathology.. 2009 December 5 (4):291-7. Epub 12/19/2009.

The secret of teaching surgery.

Levin AV

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2009 December 44 (6):642-5. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ocular manifestations of the Johanson-Blizzard syndrome.

Cheung JC, Thomson H, Buncic JR, Héon E, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2009 October 13 (5):512-4. Epub 08/29/2009.

Finite element model of ocular injury in abusive head trauma.

Rangarajan N, Kamalakkannan SB, Hasija V, Shams T, Jenny C, Serbanescu I, Ho J, Rusinek M, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2009 August 13 (4):364-9. Epub 05/05/2009.

Retinal hemorrhages: advances in understanding.

Levin AV

Pediatric clinics of North America.. 2009 April 56 (2):333-44. Epub 1900 01 01.

Course, complications, and outcome of juvenile arthritis-related uveitis.

Sabri K, Saurenmann RK, Silverman ED, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2008 December 12 (6):539-45. Epub 09/12/2008.

Ocular phenotype in patients with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cobalamin C type.

Gerth C, Morel CF, Feigenbaum A, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2008 December 12 (6):591-6. Epub 10/10/2008.

Elliptical anterior iris stromal defects associated with PAX6 gene sequence changes.

Sharan S, Mirzayans F, Footz T, Walter M, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2008 August 12 (4):340-3. Epub 04/25/2008.

Phakic IOLs in Children.

Donahue SP, Olitsky SE, Paysse EA, Levin AV, Hertle RW, Cruz OA

Ophthalmology.. 2008 March 115 (3):592-3; author reply 593-4. Epub 1900 01 01.

Doctors and medical industry.

Levin AV

Paediatrics & child health.. 2008 February 13 (2):119-20. Epub 1900 01 01.

Glued patches for children resistant to amblyopia occlusion therapy.

Rubab S, French D, Levin AV

Archives of ophthalmology.. 2008 January 126 (1):133-4. Epub 1900 01 01.

Guidelines for postmortem protocol for ocular investigation of sudden unexplained infant death and suspected physical child abuse.

Gilliland MG, Levin AV, Enzenauer RW, Smith C, Parsons MA, Rorke-Adams LB, Lauridson JR, La Roche GR, Christmann LM, Mian M, Jentzen J, Simons KB, Morad Y, Alexander R, Jenny C, Wygnanski-Jaffe T

The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology.. 2007 December 28 (4):323-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

The effect of the randomized trial of patching regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia on pediatric ophthalmologists: 3-year outcome.

Wygnanski-Jaffe T, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2007 October 11 (5):469-72. Epub 05/29/2007.

Ocular Genetics Program: multidisciplinary care of patients with ocular genetic eye disease.

Morad Y, Sutherland J, DaSilva L, Ulster A, Shik J, Gallie B, Héon E, Levin AV

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2007 October 42 (5):734-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome: clinical review, diagnostic and scoring systems, and anticipatory guidance.

Kline AD, Krantz ID, Sommer A, Kliewer M, Jackson LG, FitzPatrick DR, Levin AV, Selicorni A

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2007 June 15143A (12):1287-96. Epub 1900 01 01.

Cataract associated with type-1 diabetes mellitus in the pediatric population.

Wilson ME, Levin AV, Trivedi RH, Kruger SJ, Elliott LA, Ainsworth JR, Awner S, Cruz OA, Kivlin J, Vroman DT, Young WO

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2007 April 11 (2):162-5. Epub 02/15/2007.

Retinal and subdural haemorrhages from minor falls?

Ganesh A, Stephens D, Kivlin JD, Levin AV

The British journal of ophthalmology.. 2007 March 91 (3):396-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Attitudes regarding predictive testing for retinitis pigmentosa.

Mezer E, Babul-Hirji R, Wise R, Chipman M, DaSilva L, Rowell M, Thackray R, Shuman CT, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2007 March 28 (1):9-15. Epub 1900 01 01.

Psychosocial adjustment to visual loss in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

Jangra D, Ganesh A, Thackray R, Austin L, Ulster A, Sutherland J, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2007 March 28 (1):25-30. Epub 1900 01 01.

Case 2: Acute lethargy in a two-month-old infant.

Manji A, Levin AV, Rapoport A

Paediatrics & child health.. 2007 February 12 (2):129-32. Epub 1900 01 01.

Parental understanding of the role of trainees in the ophthalmic care of their children.

Zeller M, Perruzza E, Austin L, Vohra S, Stephens D, Abdolell M, McKneally M, Levin AV

Ophthalmology.. 2006 December 113 (12):2292-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Retinal hemorrhages of crush head injury: learning from outliers.

Levin AV

Archives of ophthalmology.. 2006 December 124 (12):1773-4. Epub 1900 01 01.

Assessment of change of optic nerve head cupping in pediatric glaucoma using the RetCam 120.

Erraguntla V, MacKeen LD, Atenafu E, Stephens D, Buncic JR, Budning AS, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2006 December 10 (6):528-33. Epub 1900 01 01.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome: parental preferences regarding the provision of medical information.

Hinkson DA, Atenafu E, Kennedy SJ, Vohra S, Garg D, Levin AV

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2006 October 15140 (20):2170-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

The additive effect of topical dorzolamide and systemic acetazolamide in pediatric glaucoma.

Sabri K, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2006 October 10 (5):464-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Postmortem orbital findings in shaken baby syndrome.

Wygnanski-Jaffe T, Levin AV, Shafiq A, Smith C, Enzenauer RW, Elder JE, Morin JD, Stephens D, Atenafu E

American journal of ophthalmology.. 2006 August 142 (2):233-40. Epub 1900 01 01.

Further support of the role of CYP1B1 in patients with Peters anomaly.

Vincent A, Billingsley G, Priston M, Glaser T, Oliver E, Walter M, Ritch R, Levin A, Heon E

Molecular vision.. 2006 May 1612 :506-10. Epub 05/16/2006.

Eight previously unidentified mutations found in the OA1 ocular albinism gene.

Mayeur H, Roche O, Vêtu C, Jaliffa C, Marchant D, Dollfus H, Bonneau D, Munier FL, Schorderet DF, Levin AV, Héon E, Sutherland J, Lacombe D, Said E, Mezer E, Kaplan J, Dufier JL, Marsac C, Menasche M, Abitbol M

BMC medical genetics.. 2006 April 287 :41. Epub 04/28/2006.

Utility of molecular testing for related retinal dystrophies.

Mezer E, Sutherland J, Goei SL, Héon E, Levin AV

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2006 April 41 (2):190-6. Epub 1900 01 01.

The ocular manifestations of Jacobsen syndrome: a report of four cases and a review of the literature.

Miller GL, Somani S, Nowaczyk MJ, Feigenbaum A, Davidson RG, Costa T, Levin AV

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2006 March 27 (1):1-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Immunohistochemical evaluation of conjunctival fibrillin-1 in Marfan syndrome.

Ganesh A, Smith C, Chan W, Unger S, Quercia N, Godfrey M, Kraft S, Buncic R, Levin A

Archives of ophthalmology.. 2006 February 124 (2):205-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

The red reflex.

McLaughlin C, Levin AV

Pediatric emergency care.. 2006 February 22 (2):137-40. Epub 1900 01 01.

Endoscopic closure of a cyclodialysis cleft.

Gnanaraj L, Lam WC, Rootman DR, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2005 December 9 (6):592-4. Epub 1900 01 01.

Eye findings in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis.

Akikusa JD, Tennankore DK, Levin AV, Feldman BM

The Journal of rheumatology.. 2005 October 32 (10):1986-91. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ophthalmologic findings in the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

Wygnanski-Jaffe T, Shin J, Perruzza E, Abdolell M, Jackson LG, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2005 October 9 (5):407-15. Epub 1900 01 01.

Developing a model system for teaching goniotomy.

Patel HI, Levin AV

Ophthalmology.. 2005 June 112 (6):968-73. Epub 1900 01 01.

Measurement of intracellular vitamin C levels in human lymphocytes by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Emadi-Konjin P, Verjee Z, Levin AV, Adeli K

Clinical biochemistry.. 2005 May 38 (5):450-6. Epub 1900 01 01.

Computerized corneal topography in a paediatric population with Down syndrome.

Vincent AL, Weiser BA, Cupryn M, Stein RM, Abdolell M, Levin AV

Clinical & experimental ophthalmology.. 2005 February 33 (1):47-52. Epub 1900 01 01.

Shaken baby syndrome without intracranial hemorrhage on initial computed tomography.

Morad Y, Avni I, Capra L, Case ME, Feldman K, Kodsi SR, Esernio-Jenssen D, Lukefahr JL, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2004 December 8 (6):521-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Normal computerized tomography of brain in children with shaken baby syndrome.

Morad Y, Avni I, Benton SA, Berger RP, Byerley JS, Coffman K, Greeley CS, Gustavson EE, Levitt CJ, Lenane A, Topley J, Levin AV

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2004 October 8 (5):445-50. Epub 1900 01 01.

Defining the pathogenicity of optineurin in juvenile open-angle glaucoma.

Willoughby CE, Chan LL, Herd S, Billingsley G, Noordeh N, Levin AV, Buys Y, Trope G, Sarfarazi M, Héon E

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 2004 September 45 (9):3122-30. Epub 1900 01 01.

Suspected child abuse victims.

Levin AV, Ells A, Schloff S

Ophthalmology.. 2004 September 111 (9):1794; author reply 1794-5. Epub 1900 01 01.

Retinal hemorrhages in type I osteogenesis imperfecta after minor trauma.

Ganesh A, Jenny C, Geyer J, Shouldice M, Levin AV

Ophthalmology.. 2004 July 111 (7):1428-31. Epub 1900 01 01.

Characterization and prevalence of PITX2 microdeletions and mutations in Axenfeld-Rieger malformations.

Lines MA, Kozlowski K, Kulak SC, Allingham RR, Héon E, Ritch R, Levin AV, Shields MB, Damji KF, Newlin A, Walter MA

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 2004 March 45 (3):828-33. Epub 1900 01 01.

Early postoperative refractive outcomes of pediatric intraocular lens implantation.

Mezer E, Rootman DS, Abdolell M, Levin AV

Journal of cataract and refractive surgery.. 2004 March 30 (3):603-10. Epub 1900 01 01.

Heterozygous mutations of the kinesin KIF21A in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1).

Yamada K, Andrews C, Chan WM, McKeown CA, Magli A, de Berardinis T, Loewenstein A, Lazar M, O'Keefe M, Letson R, London A, Ruttum M, Matsumoto N, Saito N, Morris L, Del Monte M, Johnson RH, Uyama E, Houtman WA, de Vries B, Carlow TJ, Hart BL, Krawiecki N, Shoffner J, Vogel MC, Katowitz J, Goldstein SM, Levin AV, Sener EC, Ozturk BT, Akarsu AN, Brodsky MC, Hanisch F, Cruse RP, Zubcov AA, Robb RM, Roggenkäemper P, Gottlob I, Kowal L, Battu R, Traboulsi EI, Franceschini P, Newlin A, Demer JL, Engle EC

Nature genetics.. 2003 December 35 (4):318-21. Epub 11/02/2003.

Development of a clinical severity score for preseptal cellulitis in children.

Vu BL, Dick PT, Levin AV, Pirie J

Pediatric emergency care.. 2003 October 19 (5):302-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Mutational analysis of the OA1 gene in ocular albinism.

Camand O, Boutboul S, Arbogast L, Roche O, Sternberg C, Sutherland J, Levin A, Héon E, Menasche M, Dufier J, Abitbol M

Ophthalmic genetics.. 2003 September 24 (3):167-73. Epub 1900 01 01.

Linkage study between congenital cataracts and five crystallin loci.

Barr CL, Levin AV, Kovacs R, Muller W, Barsoum-Homsy M, Zachary D, Clark RA, Tsilfidis C

American journal of medical genetics. Part A.. 2003 August 15121A (1):15-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

Challenges of teaching surgery: ethical framework.

Raja AJ, Levin AV

World journal of surgery.. 2003 August 27 (8):948-51. Epub 06/10/2003.

Clinical diagnoses that overlap with choroideremia.

Lee TK, McTaggart KE, Sieving PA, Heckenlively JR, Levin AV, Greenberg J, Weleber RG, Tong PY, Anhalt EF, Powell BR, MacDonald IM

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2003 August 38 (5):364-72; quiz 372. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ophthalmic assessment of children before renal transplantation.

Behbehani A, Kraft S, Buncic JR, Levin AV

Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie.. 2003 August 38 (5):379-84. Epub 1900 01 01.

The Ahmed drainage implant in the treatment of pediatric glaucoma.

Morad Y, Donaldson CE, Kim YM, Abdolell M, Levin AV

American journal of ophthalmology.. 2003 June 135 (6):821-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ocular findings in lissencephaly.

Nabi NU, Mezer E, Blaser SI, Levin AA, Buncic JR

Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2003 June 7 (3):178-84. Epub 1900 01 01.