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LGBTQ Health

People of any sexual orientation can face health problems. LGBTQ people may be at a greater risk for health problems because they may not always see a healthcare provider when they need to. It may be that they feel embarrassed, have had a bad experience, fear judgment, or have a healthcare provider who is uninformed.

Here are some health issues to be aware of and talk about with your healthcare provider.

Man talking to healthcare provider.

Hormone issues

While transitioning, you'll take hormones to achieve masculine or feminine effects. Those hormones carry risks:

  • Low or high blood pressure

  • Blood clots

  • Stroke

  • Heart disease

  • Certain cancers

  • Fluid loss (dehydration) and electrolyte imbalance

  • Liver damage

  • Increased hemoglobin

Sometimes a transgender person buys hormones from a nonmedical provider. This may be because the therapy isn't covered by insurance. Or it could be because the person doesn't want to get medical care. This can result in taking the wrong hormone or the wrong dosage, which may increase the chance for serious side effects. To limit the risks, a healthcare provider should closely monitor hormone therapy with blood levels.


Transgender people are at a slightly higher risk of developing some cancers that are tied to hormone use. Depending on the stage of transition, the breasts, uterus, ovaries, prostate, or liver can be affected.

Appropriate screenings including prostate, breast, and pelvic exams should be a part of routine healthcare. Although you might face challenges dealing with healthcare issues, don't delay or skip these exams. Not getting preventive screening could result in a delay in the diagnosis and treatment of any cancer.

Mental health issues

LGBTQ people often have mental health issues as they struggle to identify with their sexuality. You may have a hard time sharing such personal information with family and friends. You may worry about how loved ones will react. Or you may feel lonely because you don't want to tell anyone, even those close to you. You may feel depressed or anxious because of this lack of support or acceptance from your friends, family, or community. But if you don't seek attention and treatment, your risk for suicide may increase.

Sexually transmitted infections

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis A and B, HIV, syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea, among others. Most STIs can be treated, but some can be fatal. They can affect people no matter what their sexual orientation is. Certain LGBTQ people may not want to practice safe sex. And some may have lifestyles that increase their risk. Practicing safe sex can limit your chances of getting or passing on an STI. Get medical care right away at the first sign of symptoms. Don't put off a visit to the healthcare provider because you're embarrassed or fear judgment.

Substance abuse

LGBTQ people often have substance abuse problems. These include tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs. The reason may be partly that people in this group face challenges as they strive to find their place in society.

Heart disease

Obesity, smoking, and hormone use are common among LGBTQ people. These factors put a person at risk for heart disease, heart attack and stroke. You should get regular checkups to help prevent heart disease. Also control health conditions like high blood pressure and obesity, and live a healthy lifestyle.


An unhealthy body weight can contribute to a number of health problems. These range from depression to heart disease. A healthy lifestyle should be a part of any LGBTQ person's daily routine. Try to get regular exercise and follow a healthy diet to get to and maintain a healthy weight.

Be aware of your increased risk for health problems because of your sexual orientation or gender identity. Set up a good relationship with a healthcare team to help keep you in good physical and mental health. 

Medical Reviewers:

  • L Renee Watson MSN RN
  • Ricardo Rafael Correa Marquez MD
  • Rita Sather RN