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URMC / Center for Community Health & Prevention / Surveillance & Prevention / Emerging Infections Program / Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) and Antimicrobial Use Prevalence Surveys
 

Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) and Antimicrobial Use Prevalence Survey

Purpose

Healthcare-associated infections are a major public health problem in U.S. hospitals and are becoming more prevalent in non-acute care settings such as nursing homes. Prevalence surveys provide critical information on the burden and types of HAIs affecting patients in these settings as well as the prescribing quality of antimicrobial drugs.

Goals and Objectives

  • Estimate HAI prevalence in a large sample of U.S. acute care inpatients and nursing home residents.
  • Determine the distribution of HAI by pathogen (including antimicrobial-resistant pathogens) and major infection site.
  • Estimate the prevalence and describe the indications for antimicrobial use in a large sample of U.S. acute care inpatients and nursing home residents.
  • Identify changes in HAI and antimicrobial use prevalence, burden and epidemiology over time.
  • Describe the quality of antimicrobial drug prescribing in selected clinical circumstances. 

Activities

In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a single city pilot point prevalence survey. The Rochester/New York State EIP participated in a limited roll-out survey conducted at three area hospitals in 2010. A full-scale survey was conducted in 2011 in 23 hospitals in the Western NY region and repeated in 2015 in 22 hospitals.

In 2013-4, Rochester/New York State EIP participated in a pilot study using similar methods in three nursing homes. With the changing delivery of health care in the U.S. from hospitals to non-hospital settings, additional efforts to effectively measure and prevent HAIs in non-acute care hospital settings were initiated. Nursing homes and skilled nursing facilities have been identified by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as a priority area for monitoring the occurrence of HAIs and implementing programs to reduce HAIs. In 2017, a full-scale survey was conducted in nursing homes. The goal of this survey was to provide reliable estimates of the national burden of HAI and antibiotic use among nursing home residents.

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