Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) and Antimicrobial Use Prevalence Survey
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major public health problem in U.S. hospitals and are becoming more prevalent in non-acute care settings such as nursing homes. Prevalence surveys provide critical information on the burden and types of HAIs affecting patients in these settings as well as the prescribing quality of antimicrobial drugs.
Goals and Objectives
- Estimate HAI prevalence in a large sample of U.S. acute care inpatients and nursing home residents.
- Determine the distribution of HAI by pathogen (including antimicrobial-resistant pathogens) and major infection site.
- Estimate the prevalence and describe the indications for antimicrobial use in a large sample of U.S. acute care inpatients and nursing home residents.
- Identify changes in HAI and antimicrobial use prevalence, burden and epidemiology over time.
- Estimate the burden of HAIs and antimicrobial use in the U.S.
- Describe the quality of antimicrobial drug prescribing in selected clinical circumstances.
In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a single city pilot point prevalence survey. The New York EIP participated in a limited roll-out survey conducted at 3 area hospitals in 2010. A full-scale survey was conducted in 2011 in 23 hospitals in the Western NY region and again in 2015 in 22 hospitals.
In 2013-4, Rochester EIP participated in a pilot study using similar methods in three nursing homes. With the changing delivery of healthcare in the U.S. from hospitals to non-hospital settings, additional efforts to effectively measure and prevent HAIs in non-acute care hospital settings have been initiated. Nursing homes and skilled nursing facilities have been identified by the US Department of Health and Human Services as a priority area for monitoring the occurrence of HAIs and implementing programs to reduce HAIs, (www.hhs.gov/ash/initiatives/hai/actionplan/index.html#Phase3:Long-TermCareFacilities). In 2017, a full-scale survey was conducted in nursing homes. The goal of this survey was to provide reliable estimates of the national burden of HAI among nursing home residents.
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