What is fluoroscopy?
Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures. It’s much like an X-ray "movie"
and is often done while a contrast dye moves through the part of the body being examined.
A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part and sent to a video monitor
so that the body part and its motion can be seen in detail. Fluoroscopy, as an imaging
tool, allows healthcare providers to look at many body systems, including the skeletal,
digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, and reproductive systems.
Fluoroscopy may be used to evaluate specific areas of the body. These include the
bones, bowel, muscles, heart vessels, and joints.
Why might I need fluoroscopy?
Fluoroscopy is used in many types of exams and procedures including:
Barium X-rays. In barium X-rays, fluoroscopy used alone allows the healthcare provider to see the
movement of the intestines as the barium moves through them.
Cardiac catheterization. In cardiac catheterization, fluoroscopy is used to help the healthcare provider see
the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to check for arterial blockages.
Electrophysiologic procedures. During these procedures, fluoroscopy is used to treat people with heart rhythm problems
Arthrography. X-ray to view a joint or joints.
Placement of IV (intravenous) or arterial catheters. Catheters are thin, hollow tubes. For catheter insertion, fluoroscopy is used to
guide the catheter into a specific vessel inside the body.
Hysterosalpingogram. This is an X-ray of the uterus and fallopian tubes.
Percutaneous vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty. This is a procedure to treat compression fractures of the bones (vertebrae) of the
Retrograde urethrogram, micturating cysto-urethrogram. This test assesses problems of the urinary system.
Fistulography. This test assesses an abnormal connection (fistula) between two organs.
Fluoroscopy may also be used for:
Fluoroscopy may be used alone, or may be used along with other diagnostic procedures.
There may be other reasons for your healthcare provider to recommend fluoroscopy.
What are the risks of fluoroscopy?
You may want to ask your healthcare provider about the amount of radiation used during
the procedure and the risks related to your particular situation. It is a good idea
to keep a record of your radiation exposure, such as previous CT scans and other types
of X-rays, so that you can inform your healthcare provider. Risks associated with
radiation exposure may be related to the cumulative number of X-ray exam or treatments
over a long period.
If you are pregnant or think you may be, tell your healthcare provider. Radiation
exposure during pregnancy may lead to birth defects.
If contrast dye is used, there is a risk for allergic reaction to the dye. Tell your
healthcare provider if you are allergic to or sensitive to medicines, contrast media,
iodine, or latex. Also, tell your healthcare provider if you have kidney failure or
other kidney problems.
There may be other risks depending on your specific medical condition. Be certain
your healthcare provider knows about all of your medical conditions.
Certain factors or conditions may interfere with the accuracy of a fluoroscopy procedure.
For instance, a recent barium X-ray procedure may interfere with exposure of the stomach
or lower back area. Make sure your healthcare provider knows about your medical history
and any recent tests or treatments you have had.
How do I get ready for fluoroscopy?
Your healthcare provider will explain the procedure to you and give you a chance to
ask questions. Make a list of questions and any concerns to discuss with your healthcare
provider before the procedure. Consider bringing a family member or trusted friend
to the medical appointment to help you remember your questions and concerns and to
You will be asked to sign a consent form that gives your permission to do the procedure.
Read the form carefully and ask questions if anything is not clear.
The specific type of procedure or exam being done will determine whether you have
to do any preparation before the procedure. Your healthcare provider will give you
any pre-procedure instructions.
Be sure to tell your healthcare provider, the radiologist, or the technologist if
you have ever had a reaction to any contrast dye, or if you are allergic to iodine.
Tell your healthcare provider if you are pregnant or think you may be.
Tell your healthcare provider if you are breastfeeding and ask if you need to pump
and save milk to use after the procedure.
Make sure your healthcare provider has a list of all medicines (prescribed and over-the-counter)
and all herbs, vitamins, and supplements that you are taking.
Based on your medical condition, your healthcare provider may give you other instructions
on what to do before the procedure.
What happens during fluoroscopy?
Fluoroscopy may be done on an outpatient basis or as part of your stay in a hospital.
Procedures may vary depending on your condition and your healthcare provider's practices.
Generally, fluoroscopy follows this process:
You will be asked to remove any clothing or jewelry that may get in the way of the
body area to be examined. A bracelet with your name and an identification number may
be put on your wrist. You may get a second bracelet if you have allergies.
If you are asked to remove your clothing, you will be given a gown to wear.
A contrast substance or dye may be given, depending on the type of procedure that
is being done. You may get the contrast by swallowing it, as an enema, or in an IV
(intravenous) line in your hand or arm. It's used to better visualize the organs or
structures being studied.
You will be positioned on the X-ray table. Depending on the type of procedure, you
may be asked to move into different positions, move a certain body part, or hold your
breath for a short time while the fluoroscopy is being done.
For procedures that require catheter insertion, such as cardiac catheterization or
catheter placement into another body part, a needle may be put into the groin, elbow,
or other site.
A special X-ray machine will be used to make the fluoroscopic images of the body structure
being examined or treated.
In the case of arthrography (visualization of a joint), any fluid in the joint may
be aspirated (removed with a needle and syringe) before the contrast dye is injected.
After the contrast is injected, you may be asked to move the joint for a few minutes
to spread the contrast throughout the joint.
The type of procedure being done and the body part being examined or treated will
determine the length of the procedure.
If a catheter is placed, it will be removed after the procedure is finished,
Fluoroscopy itself is not painful, but the particular procedure being done may be
painful, such as the injection into a joint or accessing of an artery or vein for
angiography. In these cases, the radiologist will take all comfort measures possible,
which could include local anesthesia (numbing medicines), conscious sedation (medicines
to make you sleepy), or general anesthesia (medicines to put you into a deep sleep
and not feel pain), depending on the particular procedure.
What happens after fluoroscopy?
The type of care needed after the procedure will depend on the type of fluoroscopy
that is done. Certain procedures, such as cardiac catheterization, will need a recovery
period of several hours with immobilization of the leg or arm where the catheter was
inserted. Other procedures may need less time for recovery.
If you notice any pain, redness, or swelling at the IV site after you go home, tell
your healthcare provider as this may be a sign of infection or other type of reaction.
Your healthcare provider will give more specific instructions related to your care
after the procedure.
Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:
The name of the test or procedure
The reason you are having the test or procedure
What results to expect and what they mean
The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
What the possible side effects or complications are
When and where you are to have the test or procedure
Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
What would happen if you did not have the test or procedure
Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
When and how you will get the results
Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
How much you will have to pay for the test or procedure