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Useful Resources

Many organizations have information and resources related to Covid and infection control. Here are a few:

American Dental Association (ADA)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Organization for Safety, Asepsis and Prevention (OSAP)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
International Association for Dental Research (IADR)
American Dental Education Association (ADEA)

Questions?  Contact Eastman Institute for Oral Health experts at

  • Huang Q, Marzouk T, Cirligeanu R, Malmstrom H, Eliav E, Ren YF. Ventilation Assessment by Carbon Dioxide Levels in Dental Treatment Rooms. J Dent Res. 2021;100(8):810-816. doi:10.1177/00220345211014441
  • Di Gilio A, Palmisani J, Pulimeno M, et al. CO2 concentration monitoring inside educational buildings as a strategic tool to reduce the risk of Sars-CoV-2 airborne transmission [published online ahead of print, 2021 Jul 3]. Environ Res. 2021;202:111560. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.111560

  • Meethil AP, Saraswat S, Chaudhary PP, Dabdoub SM, Kumar PS. Sources of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Microorganisms in Dental Aerosols. J Dent Res. 2021;100(8):817-823. doi:10.1177/00220345211015948​​​​​​

  • Ren Y-F, Huang Q, Marzouk T, Richard R, Pembroke K, Martone P, Venner T, Malmstrom H, Eliav E. 2021. Effects of mechanical ventilation and portable air cleaner on aerosol removal from dental treatment rooms. J Dent. 105:103576.
  • Huang Q, Marzouk T, Ren YF et al. Ventilation rate assessment by carbon dioxide levels in dental treatment rooms. JDR 2021
  • Harrichandra A, Ierardi AM, Pavilonis B. 2020. An estimation of airborne SARS-CoV-2 infection transmission risk in New York City nail salons. Toxicol Ind Health. 36(9):634–643.
  • Jimenez J-L. 2020. How to quantify the ventilation rate of an indoor space using an affordable CO2 monitor [accessed 2021 Feb 4].
  • Qian H, Miao T, Liu L, Zheng X, Luo D, Li Y. 2020. Indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Indoor Air [epub ahead of print 31 Oct 2020]. doi:10.1111/ina.12766
  • CDC, How COVID-19 spreads, 2020. getting-sick/how-covid-spreads.html. (Accessed Nov. 22 2020).
  • American Dental Association, ADA Continued Guidance for Minimizing Risk of COVID-19 Transmission. dental-practices-resume-operations-ada-offers-continuedguidance?utm_source=cpsorg&utm_medium=cpsalertbar&utm_content=cv continuedguidance-statement&utm_campaign=covid-19. (Accessed Nov. 22, 2020.
  • CDC, Guidance for Dental Settings - Interim Infection Prevention and Control Guidance for Dental Settings During the COVID-19 Pandemic. (Accessed Nov. 22, 2020.
  • C.G. Estrich, M. Mikkelsen, R. Morrissey, M.L. Geisinger, E. Ioannidou, M. Vujicic, M.W.B. Araujo, Estimating COVID-19 prevalence and infection control practices among US dentists, The Journal of the American Dental Association 151(11) (2020) 815-824.
  • Z. Hu, C. Song, C. Xu, G. Jin, Y. Chen, X. Xu, H. Ma, W. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Zheng, J. Wang, Z. Hu, Y. Yi, H. Shen, Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China, Sci China Life Sci (2020).
  • Zemouri C, Awad SF, Volgenant CMC, Crielaard W, Laheij AMGA, de Soet JJ. 2020. Modeling of the transmission of coronaviruses, measles virus, influenza virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Legionella pneumophila in dental clinics. J Dent Res. 99(10):1192–1198.
  • Y. Chen, A. Wang, B. Yi, K. Ding, H. Wang, J. Wang, H. Shi, S. Wang, G. Xu, The epidemiological characteristics of infection in close contacts of COVID-19 in Ningbo city, Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 41(0) (2020) 0-0.
  • J.A. Lednicky, M. Lauzardo, Z.H. Fan, A. Jutla, T.B. Tilly, M. Gangwar, M. Usmani, S.N. Shankar, K. Mohamed, A. Eiguren-bFernandez, C.J. Stephenson, M.M. Alam, M.A. Elbadry, J.C.Loeb, K. Subramaniam, T.B. Waltzek, K. Cherabuddi, J.G. Morris, Jr., C.-Y. Wu, Viable SARS-CoV-2 in the air of a hospital room with COVID-19 patients, International Journal of Infectious Diseases 100 (2020) 476-482.
  • S. Tang, Y. Mao, R.M. Jones, Q. Tan, J.S. Ji, N. Li, J. Shen, Y. Lv, L. Pan, P. Ding, X. Wang, Y. Wang, C.R. MacIntyre, X. Shi, Aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2? Evidence, prevention and control, Environment international 144 (2020) 106039-106039.
  • S.L. Miller, W.W. Nazaroff, J.L. Jimenez, A. Boerstra, G. Buonanno, S.J. Dancer, J. Kurnitski, L.C. Marr, L. Morawska, C. Noakes, Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by inhalation of respiratory aerosol in the Skagit Valley Chorale superspreading event, Indoor Air (2020).
  • L. Morawska, J.W. Tang, W. Bahnfleth, P.M. Bluyssen, A. Boerstra, G. Buonanno, J. Cao, S. Dancer, A. Floto, F. Franchimon, C. Haworth, J. Hogeling, C. Isaxon, J.L. Jimenez, J. Kurnitski, Y. Li, M. Loomans, G. Marks, L.C. Marr, L. Mazzarella, A.K. Melikov, S. Miller, D.K. Milton, W. Nazaroff, P.V. Nielsen, C. Noakes, J. Peccia, X. Querol, C. Sekhar, O. Seppänen, S.I. Tanabe, R. Tellier, K.W. Tham, P. Wargocki, A. Wierzbicka, M. Yao, How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised?, Environ Int 142 (2020) 105832.
  • E. National Academies of Sciences, Medicine, Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2020. G.B. Pelleu, Jr., W.B. Shreve, L.W. Wachtel, Reduction of microbial 1 concentration in the air of dental operating rooms. I. High-efficiency particulate air filters, J Dent Res 49(2) (1970) 315- 3 9.
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor air quality (IAQ): what is a MERV rating?, 2020. (Accessed Nov. 22, 2020.)
  • T.D. Ravenel, R. Kessler, J.C. Comisi, A. Kelly, W.G. Renne, S.T. Teich, Evaluation of the spatter-reduction effectiveness and aerosol containment of eight dry-field isolation techniques, Quintessence Int 51(8) (2020) 660-670.
  • J. Chen, Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV-A quick overview and comparison with other emerging viruses, Microbes Infect 22(2) (2020) 69-71.
  • Honeywell International Inc., Honeywell True HEPA 50250: Description., 2020. (Accessed July. 30, 2020).
  • M. Jayaweera, H. Perera, B. Gunawardana, J. Manatunge, Transmission of COVID-19 virus by droplets and aerosols: A critical review on the unresolved dichotomy, Environmental research 188 (2020) 109819-109819.
  • D. Koletsi, G.N. Belibasakis, T. Eliades, Interventions to Reduce Aerosolized Microbes in Dental Practice: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, J Dent Res 99(11) (2020) 1228-1238.
  • S. Kumbargere Nagraj, P. Eachempati, M. Paisi, M. Nasser, G. Sivaramakrishnan, J.H. Verbeek, Interventions to reduce contaminated aerosols produced during dental procedures for preventing infectious diseases, Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10 (2020) Cd013686.
  • K.P. Fennelly, Particle sizes of infectious aerosols: implications for infection control, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 8(9) (2020) 914-924.
  • OSHA, Occupational Noise Exposure. (Accessed Nov. 22, 2020 2020).
  • S.A. Al-Omoush, K.J. Abdul-Baqi, M. Zuriekat, F. Alsoleihat, W.R. Elmanaseer, K.D. Jamani, Assessment of occupational noise-related hearing impairment among dental health personnel, J Occup Health 62(1) (2020) e12093.
  • Yip L, Finn M, Granados A, Prost K, McGeer A, Gubbay JB, Scott J, Mubareka S. 2019. Influenza virus RNA recovered from droplets and droplet nuclei emitted by adults in an acute care setting. J Occup Environ Hyg. 16(5):341–348.
  • M.-H. Liu, C.-T. Chen, L.-C. Chuang, W.-M. Lin, G.-H. Wan, Removal efficiency of central vacuum system and protective masks to suspended particles from dental treatment, PLOS ONE 14(11) (2019) e0225644.20
  • AHAM, ANSI/AHAM AC-1: method for measuring the performance of portable household electric room air cleaners - understanding its scope and the related AHAM industry certification program, Available at, 2014.
  • N.H. Al-Rawi, A.S. Al Nuaimi, A. Sadiqi, E. Azaiah, D. Ezzeddine, Q. Ghunaim, Z. Abbas, Occupational noise-induced hearing loss among dental professionals, Quintessence Int 50(3) (2019) 245-250.
  • Azuma K, Kagi N, Yanagi U, Osawa H. 2018. Effects of low-level inhalation exposure to carbon dioxide in indoor environments: a short review on human health and psychomotor performance. Environ Int. 121(Pt 1):51–56.
  • H. Qian, X. Zheng, Ventilation control for airborne transmission of human exhaled bio aerosols in buildings, Journal of Thoracic Disease (2018) S2295-S2304.
  • ASHRAE. 2017. Measurement, testing, adjusting and balancing of building HVAC systems. ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 111-2008 (RA 2017). Atlanta(GA): ASHRAE.
  • Batterman S. 2017. Review and extension of CO2-based methods to determine ventilation rates with application to school classrooms. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 14(2):145.
  • Persily A, de Jonge L. 2017. Carbon dioxide generation rates for building occupants. Indoor Air. 27(5):868–879.
  • C. Zemouri, H. de Soet, W. Crielaard, A. Laheij, A scoping review on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental environment, PLoS One 12(5) (2017) e0178007.
  • New York State Department of Health, Design submission requirements: Dental facilities, in: L. Center for Health Care Facility Planning, and Finance. Division of Planning and Licensure. Bureau of Architecture & Engineering Review., (Ed.) 2017, pp. 1-5.
  • Lindsley WG, Blachere FM, Beezhold DH, Thewlis RE, Noorbakhsh B,Othumpangat S, Goldsmith WT, McMillen CM, Andrew ME, Burrell CN, et al. 2016. Viable influenza A virus in airborne particles expelled during coughs versus exhalations. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 10(5):404–413.
  • J.L. Perry, J.H. Agui, R. Vijayakimar, Submicron and Nanoparticulate Matter Removal by HEPA-Rated Media Filters and Packed Beds of Granular Materials, NASA Science and Technical Information NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; Huntsville, AL, United States, 2016.
  • D. Ciuzas, Indoor Air Quality Management by Combined Ventilation and Air Cleaning: An Experimental Study, Aerosol and Air Quality Research 16(10) (2016) 2550-2559.
  • A. Burk, R.L. Neitzel, An exploratory study of noise exposures in educational and private dental clinics, J Occup Environ Hyg 13(10) (2016) 741-9.
  • Issarow CM, Mulder N, Wood R. 2015. Modelling the risk of airborne infectious disease using exhaled air. J Theor Biol. 372:100–106.
  • E.S. Mousavi, K.R. Grosskopf, Ventilation Rates and Airflow Pathways in Patient Rooms: A Case Study of Bioaerosol Containment and Removal, Ann Occup Hyg 59(9) (2015) 1190-9.
  • Cheng PL, Li X. 2014. Air change rate measurements using tracer gas carbon dioxide from dry ice. Int J Vent. 13(3):235–246.
  • Qi MW, Li XF, Weschler LB, Sundell J. 2014. CO2 generation rate in Chinese people. Indoor Air. 24(6):559–566.
  • Wood R, Morrow C, Ginsberg S, Piccoli E, Kalil D, Sassi A, Walensky RP, Andrews JR. 2014. Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission. PLoS One. 9(9):e106622.
  • Richardson ET, Morrow CD, Kalil DB, Ginsberg S, Bekker LG, Wood R. 2014. Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission. PLoS One. 9(5):e96334.
  • B. Polednik, Aerosol and bioaerosol particles in a 1 dental office, Environ Res 134 (2014) 405-2 9.
  • Fernstrom A, Goldblatt M. 2013. Aerobiology and its role in the transmission of infectious diseases. J Pathog. 2013:493960.
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  • C. Chen, B. Zhao, W. Cui, L. Dong, N. An, X. Ouyang, The effectiveness of an air cleaner in controlling droplet/aerosol particle dispersion emitted from a patient's mouth in the indoor environment of dental clinics, J R Soc Interface 7(48) (2010) 1105-18.
  • H. Qian, Y. Li, H. Sun, P.V. Nielsen, X. Huang, X. Zheng, Particle removal efficiency of the portable HEPA air cleaner in a simulated hospital ward, Building Simulation 3(3) (2010) 215-224.
  • K.-C. Noh, J. Hwang, The Effect of Ventilation Rate and Filter Performance on Indoor Particle Concentration and Fan Power Consumption in a Residential Housing Unit, Indoor and Built Environment 19(4) (2010) 444-452.
  • Fabian P, McDevitt JJ, Lee WM, Houseman EA, Milton DK. 2009. An optimized method to detect influenza virus and human rhinovirus from exhaled breath and the airborne environment. J Environ Monit. 11(2):314–317.
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