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  • ASHRAE. 2007. Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007. Atlanta (GA): ASHRAE. p. 1–48.
  • ASHRAE. 2017. Measurement, testing, adjusting and balancing of building HVAC systems. ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 111-2008 (RA 2017). Atlanta(GA): ASHRAE.
  • Azuma K, Kagi N, Yanagi U, Osawa H. 2018. Effects of low-level inhalation exposure to carbon dioxide in indoor environments: a short review on human health and psychomotor performance. Environ Int. 121(Pt 1):51–56.
  • Batterman S. 2017. Review and extension of CO2-based methods to determine ventilation rates with application to school classrooms. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 14(2):145.
  • Cheng PL, Li X. 2014. Air change rate measurements using tracer gas carbon dioxide from dry ice. Int J Vent. 13(3):235–246.
  • Chinn RY, Sehulster L; CDC; HICPAC. 2003. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities; recommendations of CDC and healthcare infection control practices advisory committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recomm Rep. 52(RR-10):1–42.
  • Fabian P, McDevitt JJ, Lee WM, Houseman EA, Milton DK. 2009. An optimized method to detect influenza virus and human rhinovirus from exhaled breath and the airborne environment. J Environ Monit. 11(2):314–317.
  • Fernstrom A, Goldblatt M. 2013. Aerobiology and its role in the transmission of infectious diseases. J Pathog. 2013:493960.
  • Godwin CC, Batterman SA, Sahni SP, Peng CY. 2003. Indoor environment quality in dental clinics: potential concerns from particulate matter. Am J Dent. 16(4):260–266.
  • Harrichandra A, Ierardi AM, Pavilonis B. 2020. An estimation of airborne SARS-CoV-2 infection transmission risk in New York City nail salons. Toxicol Ind Health. 36(9):634–643.
  • Helmis CG, Tzoutzas J, Flocas HA, Halios CH, Assimakopoulos VD, Stathopoulou OI, Panis V, Apostolatou M. 2008. Emissions of total volatile organic compounds and indoor environment assessment in dental clinics in Athens, Greece. Int Dent J. 58(5):269–278.
  • Helmis CG, Tzoutzas J, Flocas HA, Halios CH, Stathopoulou OI, Assimakopoulos VD, Panis V, Apostolatou M, Sgouros G, Adam E. 2007.
  • Indoor air quality in a dentistry clinic. Sci Total Environ. 377(2–3):349–365.
  • Issarow CM, Mulder N, Wood R. 2015. Modelling the risk of airborne infectious disease using exhaled air. J Theor Biol. 372:100–106.
  • Jimenez J-L. 2020. How to quantify the ventilation rate of an indoor space using an affordable CO2 monitor [accessed 2021 Feb 4]. https://medium.com/@ jjose_19945/how-to-quantify-the-ventilation-rate-of-an-indoor-space-using-a-cheap-co2-monitor-4d8b6d4dab44.
  • Lindsley WG, Blachere FM, Beezhold DH, Thewlis RE, Noorbakhsh B,Othumpangat S, Goldsmith WT, McMillen CM, Andrew ME, Burrell CN, et al. 2016. Viable influenza A virus in airborne particles expelled during coughs versus exhalations. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 10(5):404–413.
  • Myatt TA, Johnston SL, Zuo Z, Wand M, Kebadze T, Rudnick S, Milton DK. 2004. Detection of airborne rhinovirus and its relation to outdoor air supply in office environments. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 169(11):1187–1190.
  • Nardell EA, Keegan J, Cheney SA, Etkind SC. 1991. Airborne infection: theoretical limits of protection achievable by building ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 144(2):302–306.
  • Persily A, de Jonge L. 2017. Carbon dioxide generation rates for building occupants. Indoor Air. 27(5):868–879.
  • Qi MW, Li XF, Weschler LB, Sundell J. 2014. CO2 generation rate in Chinese people. Indoor Air. 24(6):559–566.
  • Qian H, Miao T, Liu L, Zheng X, Luo D, Li Y. 2020. Indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Indoor Air [epub ahead of print 31 Oct 2020]. doi:10.1111/ina.12766
  • Ren Y-F, Huang Q, Marzouk T, Richard R, Pembroke K, Martone P, Venner T, Malmstrom H, Eliav E. 2021. Effects of mechanical ventilation and portable air cleaner on aerosol removal from dental treatment rooms. J Dent. 105:103576.
  • Huang Q, Marzouk T, Ren YF et al. Ventilation rate assessment by carbon dioxide levels in dental treatment rooms. JDR 2021
  • Richardson ET, Morrow CD, Kalil DB, Ginsberg S, Bekker LG, Wood R. 2014.
  • Shared air: a renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission. PLoS One. 9(5):e96334.
  • Rudnick SN, Milton DK. 2003. Risk of indoor airborne infection transmission estimated from carbon dioxide concentration. Indoor Air. 13(3):237–245.
  • Stuart R, Sweet E, Batchelder A. 2015. Assessing general ventilation effectiveness in the laboratory. J Chem Health Saf. 22(2):2–7.
  • Wood R, Morrow C, Ginsberg S, Piccoli E, Kalil D, Sassi A, Walensky RP,
  • Andrews JR. 2014. Quantification of shared air: a social and environmental determinant of airborne disease transmission. PLoS One. 9(9):e106622.
  • Yip L, Finn M, Granados A, Prost K, McGeer A, Gubbay JB, Scott J, Mubareka S. 2019. Influenza virus RNA recovered from droplets and droplet nuclei emitted by adults in an acute care setting. J Occup Environ Hyg. 16(5):341–348.
  • Zemouri C, Awad SF, Volgenant CMC, Crielaard W, Laheij AMGA, de Soet JJ. 2020. Modeling of the transmission of coronaviruses, measles virus, influenza virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Legionella pneumophila in dental clinics. J Dent Res. 99(10):1192–1198.
  • J.A. Harte, Standard and transmission-based precautions: an update for dentistry, J Am Dent Assoc 141(5) (2010) 572-81.
  • CDC, How COVID-19 spreads, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent getting-sick/how-covid-spreads.html. (Accessed Nov. 22 2020).
  • American Dental Association, ADA Continued Guidance for Minimizing Risk of COVID-19 Transmission. https://www.ada.org/en/press-room/news-releases/2020-archives/may/as dental-practices-resume-operations-ada-offers-continuedguidance?utm_source=cpsorg&utm_medium=cpsalertbar&utm_content=cv continuedguidance-statement&utm_campaign=covid-19. (Accessed Nov. 22, 2020.
  • CDC, Guidance for Dental Settings - Interim Infection Prevention and Control Guidance for Dental Settings During the COVID-19 Pandemic. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/dental-settings.html. (Accessed Nov. 22, 2020.
  • C.G. Estrich, M. Mikkelsen, R. Morrissey, M.L. Geisinger, E. Ioannidou, M. Vujicic, M.W.B. Araujo, Estimating COVID-19 prevalence and infection control practices among US dentists, The Journal of the American Dental Association 151(11) (2020) 815-824.
  • L. Meng, B. Ma, Y. Cheng, Z. Bian, Epidemiological Investigation of OHCWs with COVID-19, Journal of Dental Research 0(0) 0022034520962087.
  • Z. Hu, C. Song, C. Xu, G. Jin, Y. Chen, X. Xu, H. Ma, W. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Zheng, J. Wang, Z. Hu, Y. Yi, H. Shen, Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China, Sci China Life Sci (2020).
  • Y. Chen, A. Wang, B. Yi, K. Ding, H. Wang, J. Wang, H. Shi, S. Wang, G. Xu, The epidemiological characteristics of infection in close contacts of COVID-19 in Ningbo city, Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 41(0) (2020) 0-0.
  • J.A. Lednicky, M. Lauzardo, Z.H. Fan, A. Jutla, T.B. Tilly, M. Gangwar, M. Usmani, S.N. Shankar, K. Mohamed, A. Eiguren-bFernandez, C.J. Stephenson, M.M. Alam, M.A. Elbadry, J.C.Loeb, K. Subramaniam, T.B. Waltzek, K. Cherabuddi, J.G. Morris, Jr., C.-Y. Wu, Viable SARS-CoV-2 in the air of a hospital room with COVID-19 patients, International Journal of Infectious Diseases 100 (2020) 476-482.
  • S. Tang, Y. Mao, R.M. Jones, Q. Tan, J.S. Ji, N. Li, J. Shen, Y. Lv, L. Pan, P. Ding, X. Wang, Y. Wang, C.R. MacIntyre, X. Shi, Aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2? Evidence, prevention and control, Environment international 144 (2020) 106039-106039.
  • S.L. Miller, W.W. Nazaroff, J.L. Jimenez, A. Boerstra, G. Buonanno, S.J. Dancer, J. Kurnitski, L.C. Marr, L. Morawska, C. Noakes, Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by inhalation of respiratory aerosol in the Skagit Valley Chorale superspreading event, Indoor Air (2020).
  • L. Morawska, J.W. Tang, W. Bahnfleth, P.M. Bluyssen, A. Boerstra, G. Buonanno, J. Cao, S. Dancer, A. Floto, F. Franchimon, C. Haworth, J. Hogeling, C. Isaxon, J.L. Jimenez, J. Kurnitski, Y. Li, M. Loomans, G. Marks, L.C. Marr, L. Mazzarella, A.K. Melikov, S. Miller, D.K. Milton, W. Nazaroff, P.V. Nielsen, C. Noakes, J. Peccia, X. Querol, C. Sekhar, O. Seppänen, S.I. Tanabe, R. Tellier, K.W. Tham, P. Wargocki, A. Wierzbicka, M. Yao, How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised?, Environ Int 142 (2020) 105832.
  • E. National Academies of Sciences, Medicine, Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2020. G.B. Pelleu, Jr., W.B. Shreve, L.W. Wachtel, Reduction of microbial 1 concentration in the air of dental operating rooms. I. High-efficiency particulate air filters, J Dent Res 49(2) (1970) 315- 3 9.
  • C. Chen, B. Zhao, W. Cui, L. Dong, N. An, X. Ouyang, The effectiveness of an air cleaner in controlling droplet/aerosol particle dispersion emitted from a patient's mouth in the indoor environment of dental clinics, J R Soc Interface 7(48) (2010) 1105-18.
  • New York State Department of Health, Design submission requirements: Dental facilities, in: L. Center for Health Care Facility Planning, and Finance. Division of Palnning and Licensure. Bureau of Architecture & Engineering Review., (Ed.) 2017, pp. 1-5.
  • P. Ninomura, J. Bartley, New Ventilation Guidelines for Health-Care Facilities, ASHRAE Journal, 43(6) (2001) 29-32.
  • P.T. Ninomura, G. Byrns, Dental ventilation theory and applications, ASHRAE Journal, 40(2)(1998) 48-52.
  • R.Y.W. Chinn, L. Sehulster, Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities; recommendations of CDC and Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), (2003).
  • M.S. Waring, J.A. Siegel, R.L. Corsi, Ultrafine particle removal and generation by portable air cleaners, Atmospheric Environment 42(20) (2008) 5003-5014.
  • F.J. Offermann, R.G. Sextro, W.J. Fisk, D.T. Grimsrud, W.W. Nazaroff, A.V. Nero, K.L. Revzan, J. Yater, Control of respirable particles in indoor air with portable air cleaners, Atmospheric Environment (1967) 19(11) (1985) 1761-1771.
  • M. Ward, J.A. Siegel, R.L. Corsi, The effectiveness of stand alone air cleaners for shelter-in place, Indoor Air 15(2) (2005) 127-34.
  • S. Miller-Leiden, C. Lobascio, W.W. Nazaroff, J.M. Macher, Effectiveness of in-room air filtration and dilution ventilation for tuberculosis infection control, J Air Waste Manag Assoc 46(9) (1996) 869-82.
  • R.J. Shaughnessy, R.G. Sextro, What Is an Effective Portable Air Cleaning Device? A Review, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 3(4) (2006) 169-181.
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor air quality (IAQ): what is a MERV rating?, 2020. https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/what-merv-rating-1. (Accessed Nov. 22, 2020.)
  • K.-C. Noh, J. Hwang, The Effect of Ventilation Rate and Filter Performance on Indoor
  • Particle Concentration and Fan Power Consumption in a Residential Housing Unit, Indoor and Built Environment 19(4) (2010) 444-452.
  • Institutional Consultation Services, What does air change mean?, Isolation Rooms: Design, Assessment, and Upgrade. , Francis J Curry National Tuberculosis Center, 1999, pp. 43-44.
  • Y.S. Cheng, W.E. Bechtold, C.C. Yu, I.F. Hung, Incense Smoke: Characterization and Dynamics in Indoor Environments, Aerosol Science and Technology 23(3) (1995) 271-281.
  • M. Sotiriou, S.F. Ferguson, M. Davey, J.M. Wolfson, P. Demokritou, J. Lawrence, S.N. Sax, P. Koutrakis, Measurement of particle concentrations in a dental office, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 137(1) (2007) 351.
  • M.-H. Liu, C.-T. Chen, L.-C. Chuang, W.-M. Lin, G.-H. Wan, Removal efficiency of central vacuum system and protective masks to suspended particles from dental treatment, PLOS ONE 14(11) (2019) e0225644.20
  • B. Polednik, Aerosol and bioaerosol particles in a 1 dental office, Environ Res 134 (2014) 405-2 9.
  • J.L. Perry, J.H. Agui, R. Vijayakimar, Submicron and Nanoparticulate Matter Removal by HEPA-Rated Media Filters and Packed Beds of Granular Materials, NASA Science and Technical Information NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; Huntsville, AL, United States, 2016.
  • AHAM, ANSI/AHAM AC-1: method for measuring the performance of portable household electric room air cleaners - understanding its scope and the related AHAM industry certification program, Available at https://ahamverifide.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Scope-of-Air-Cleaner-Certification.pdf, 2014.
  • Medical Advisory Secretariat, Air cleaning technologies: an evidence-based analysis, Ont Health Technol Assess Ser 5(17) (2005) 1-52.
  • T.D. Ravenel, R. Kessler, J.C. Comisi, A. Kelly, W.G. Renne, S.T. Teich, Evaluation of the spatter-reduction effectiveness and aerosol containment of eight dry-field isolation techniques, Quintessence Int 51(8) (2020) 660-670.
  • J. Chen, Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV-A quick overview and comparison with other emerging viruses, Microbes Infect 22(2) (2020) 69-71.
  • H. Qian, X. Zheng, Ventilation control for airborne transmission of human exhaled bio aerosols in buildings, Journal of Thoracic Disease (2018) S2295-S2304.
  • S.K. Harrel, J. Molinari, Aerosols and splatter in dentistry: a brief review of the literature and infection control implications, J Am Dent Assoc 135(4) (2004) 429-37.
  • C. Zemouri, H. de Soet, W. Crielaard, A. Laheij, A scoping review on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental environment, PLoS One 12(5) (2017) e0178007.
  • H. Qian, Y. Li, H. Sun, P.V. Nielsen, X. Huang, X. Zheng, Particle removal efficiency of the portable HEPA air cleaner in a simulated hospital ward, Building Simulation 3(3) (2010) 215-224.
  • Honeywell International Inc., Honeywell True HEPA 50250: Description., 2020. https://www.honeywellstore.com/store/products/honeywell-50250-true-hepa-germ-fighting-allergen-reducer-air-purifier.htm (Accessed July. 30, 2020).
  • M. Jayaweera, H. Perera, B. Gunawardana, J. Manatunge, Transmission of COVID-19 virus by droplets and aerosols: A critical review on the unresolved dichotomy, Environmental research 188 (2020) 109819-109819.
  • J.D. Siegel, E. Rhinehart, M. Jackson, L. Chiarello, and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings. Part I-Review of Scientific Data Regarding Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings., 2007.
  • K.P. Fennelly, Particle sizes of infectious aerosols: implications for infection control, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 8(9) (2020) 914-924.
  • J. Gralton, E. Tovey, M.L. McLaws, W.D. Rawlinson, The role of particle size in aerosolized pathogen transmission: a review, J Infect 62(1) (2011) 1-13.
  • C.D. Bentley, N.W. Burkhart, J.J. Crawford, Evaluating spatter and aerosol contamination during dental procedures, J Am Dent Assoc 125(5) (1994) 579-84.
  • S.K. Harrel, J.B. Barnes, F. Rivera-Hidalgo, Reduction of aerosols produced by ultrasonic scalers, J Periodontol 67(1) (1996) 28-32.
  • M.E. Jacks, A laboratory comparison of evacuation devices on aerosol reduction, J Dent Hyg 76(3) (2002) 202-6.21
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  • A.A. Aliabadi, S.N. Rogak, K.H. Bartlett, S.I. Green, Preventing airborne disease transmission: review of methods for ventilation design in health care facilities, Adv Prev Med 2011 (2011) 124064.
  • D. Ciuzas, Indoor Air Quality Management by Combined Ventilation and Air Cleaning: An Experimental Study, Aerosol and Air Quality Research 16(10) (2016) 2550-2559.
  • D. Koletsi, G.N. Belibasakis, T. Eliades, Interventions to Reduce Aerosolized Microbes in Dental Practice: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, J Dent Res 99(11) (2020) 1228-1238.
  • S. Kumbargere Nagraj, P. Eachempati, M. Paisi, M. Nasser, G. Sivaramakrishnan, J.H. Verbeek, Interventions to reduce contaminated aerosols produced during dental procedures for preventing infectious diseases, Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10 (2020) Cd013686.
  • Z.D. Bolashikov, A.K. Melikov, Methods for air cleaning and protection of building occupants from airborne pathogens, Build Environ 44(7) (2009) 1378-1385.
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  • E.S. Mousavi, K.R. Grosskopf, Ventilation Rates and Airflow Pathways in Patient Rooms: A Case Study of Bioaerosol Containment and Removal, Ann Occup Hyg 59(9) (2015) 1190-9.
  • A. Burk, R.L. Neitzel, An exploratory study of noise exposures in educational and private dental clinics, J Occup Environ Hyg 13(10) (2016) 741-9.
  • E. Sorainen, E. Rytkönen, High-frequency noise in dentistry, AIHA J (Fairfax, Va) 63(2) (2002) 231-3.
  • S.A. Al-Omoush, K.J. Abdul-Baqi, M. Zuriekat, F. Alsoleihat, W.R. Elmanaseer, K.D. Jamani, Assessment of occupational noise-related hearing impairment among dental health personnel, J Occup Health 62(1) (2020) e12093.
  • N.H. Al-Rawi, A.S. Al Nuaimi, A. Sadiqi, E. Azaiah, D. Ezzeddine, Q. Ghunaim, Z. Abbas, Occupational noise-induced hearing loss among dental professionals, Quintessence Int 50(3) (2019) 245-250.
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  • Huang Q, Marzouk T, Cirligeanu R, Malmstrom H, Eliav E, Ren YF. Ventilation Assessment by Carbon Dioxide Levels in Dental Treatment Rooms. J Dent Res. 2021;100(8):810-816. doi:10.1177/00220345211014441

  • Di Gilio A, Palmisani J, Pulimeno M, et al. CO2 concentration monitoring inside educational buildings as a strategic tool to reduce the risk of Sars-CoV-2 airborne transmission [published online ahead of print, 2021 Jul 3]. Environ Res. 2021;202:111560. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.111560

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    Meethil AP, Saraswat S, Chaudhary PP, Dabdoub SM, Kumar PS. Sources of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Microorganisms in Dental Aerosols. J Dent Res. 2021;100(8):817-823. doi:10.1177/00220345211015948​​​​​​