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Selected References for Further Reading

What is Mindfulness/Mindful Practice in Health Care

  • Borrell-Carrio, F., & Epstein, R. M. (2004). Preventing errors in clinical practice: a call for self-awareness. Ann Fam Med, 2(4), 310-316.
  • Brown, K. W. R., R.M.; Creswell, J.D. (2007). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211-237
  • Epstein, R. M. (1999). Mindful practice. Jama, 282(9), 833-839.
  • Epstein, R. M. (2001). Just being. West J Med, 174(1), 63-65.
  • Epstein, R. M. (2003a). Mindful practice in action (I): technical competence, evidence-based medicine and relationship-centered care. Families Systems and Health,, 21, 1-10.
  • Epstein, R. M. (2006). Mindful practice and the tacit ethics of the moment. In N. Kenny & W. Shelton (Eds.), Lost Virtue: Professional Character Development and Medical Education (pp. 115-144). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
  • Epstein, R. M., & Hundert, E. M. (2002). Defining and assessing professional competence. Jama, 287(2), 226-235.
  • Krasner, M. (2007). Through the lens of attention. In M. McLeod (Ed.), The best Buddhist writing 2007 (pp. 200-207). Boston & London: Shambhala.
  • Leung, A. S. O., Epstein, R. M., & Moulton, C. A. (2012). The competent mind: beyond cognition. In B. D. Hodges & L. Lingard (Eds.), The question of competence (pp. 155-176). Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press.
  • Ludwig, D. S., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2008). Mindfulness in medicine. Jama, 300(11), 1350-1352.
  • Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L.E. (2009). The Art and Science of Mindfulness: Integrating Mindfulness Into Psychology and the Helping Professions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Sibinga, E. M. S., & Wu, A. W. (2010). Clinician Mindfulness and Patient Safety. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 304(22), 2532-2533.
  • Siegel, D. J. (2007). The mindful brain: Reflection and Attunement in the cultivation of well-being. New York: W.W. Norton.
  • Siegel, R. D. (2010). The mindfulness solution: Guilford Press.


  • Dyche, L., & Epstein, R. M. (2011). Curiosity and medical education. Med.Educ., 45(7), 663-668. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.03944.x [doi]
  • Epstein, R. M., Siegel, D. J., & Silberman, J. (2008). Self-monitoring in clinical practice: a challenge for medical educators. J Contin.Educ Health Prof., 28(1), 5-13.
  • Fitzgerald, F. T. (1999). Curiosity. Annals of Internal Medicine, 130(1), 70-72.
  • Makowski, S. K., & Epstein, R. M. (2012). Turning toward dissonance: lessons from art, music, and literature. J.Pain Symptom.Manage., 43(2), 293-298. doi: S0885-3924(11)00570-7 [pii];10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.06.014 [doi]
  • Moulton, C. A., & Epstein, R. M. (2011). Self-monitoring in surgical practice: slowing down when you should. In H. Fry & R. Kneebone (Eds.), Surgical Education: Theorising an emerging domain (Vol. 2, pp. 169-182).

Responding to Suffering

  • Cassell, E. J. (1982). The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 306(11), 639-645.
  • Back, A. L., Bauer-Wu, S. M., Rushton, C. H., & Halifax, J. (2009). Compassionate silence in the patient-clinician encounter: a contemplative approach. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(12), 1113-1117.
  • Krasner, M. S. (2004). The gift of mindfulness. Families, Systems, & Health, 22(2), 213-215.
  • Meier, D. E., Back, A. L., & Morrison, R. S. (2001). The inner life of physicians and care of the seriously ill. Jama, 286(23), 3007-3014.
  • Mount, B. M., Boston, P. H., & Cohen, S. R. (2007). Healing Connections: On Moving from Suffering to a Sense of Well-Being. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 33(4), 372-388.
  • Quill, T. E. (2004). Opening the black box: physicians' inner responses to patients' requests for physician-assisted death. J Palliat.Med, 7(3), 469-471.
  • Quill, T. E., & Cassel, C. K. (1995). Nonabandonment: a central obligation for physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 122(5), 368-374.


  • Kearney, M. K., Weininger, R. B., Vachon, M. L., Harrison, R. L., & Mount, B. M. (2009). Self-care of physicians caring for patients at the end of life: "Being connected... a key to my survival". Jama, 301(11), 1155-1164, E1151. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.352
  • Meier, D. E., Back, A. L., & Morrison, R. S. (2001). The inner life of physicians and care of the seriously ill. Jama, 286(23), 3007-3014.
  • Mount, B. M., Boston, P. H., & Cohen, S. R. (2007). Healing connections: on moving from suffering to a sense of well-being. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 33(4), 372-388. doi:
  • Quill, T. E., & Williamson, P. R. (1990). Healthy approaches to physician stress. Arch Intern Med, 150(9), 1857-1861.

Cultivating Mindfulness and Compassion

  • Djikic, M., Langer, E. J., & Stapleton, S. F. (2008). Reducing stereotyping through mindfulness effects on automatic stereotype-activated behaviors. Journal of Adult Development, 15(2), 106-111. Epstein, R. M. (2003b). Mindful Practice in Action (II): Cultivating Habits of Mind. Families Systems and Health,, 21(1), 11-17.
  • Epstein, R. M. (2013). Whole mind and shared mind in clinical decision-making. Patient Educ Couns. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2012.06.035
  • Halifax, J. (2012). A heuristic model of enactive compassion. Curr.Opin.Support.Palliat.Care, 6(2), 228-235. doi: 10.1097/SPC.0b013e3283530fbe [doi]
  • Kashdan, T. B., Afram, A., Brown, K. W., Birnbeck, M., & Drvoshanov, M. (2011). Curiosity enhances the role of mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to existential threat. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(8), 1227-1232. doi:
  • Novack, D. H., Suchman, A. L., Clark, W., Epstein, R. M., Najberg, E., Kaplan, C., et al. (1997). Calibrating the physician. Personal awareness and effective patient care. Jama, 278(6), 502-509.
  • Zoppi, K., & Epstein, R. M. (2002). Is communication a skill? Communication behaviors and being in relation. Fam.Med., 34(5), 319-324.

Grief and Loss

Shayne, M., & Quill, T. E. (2012). Oncologists responding to grief. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(12):966-967. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.2035


  • Hilfiker D. Facing our mistakes. [Journal Article] New England Journal of Medicine. 310(2):118-22, 1984 Jan 12
  • Espin S. Levinson W. Regehr G. Baker GR. Lingard L. Error or "act of God"? A study of patients' and operating room team members' perceptions of error definition, reporting, and disclosure. Surgery. 139(1):6-14, 2006 Jan.
  • Pelt JL, Faldmo LP. Physician error and disclosure. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2008;51(4):700-8.
  • Lazare, A. Apology in medical practice: an emerging clinical skill. JAMA. 2006;296:1323
  • Srivastava R. Speaking Up — When Doctors Navigate Medical Hierarchy N Engl J Med 2013; 368:302-305
  • Gallagher T et al. Disclosing harmful medical errors to patients. NEJM 2007
  • West CP et al. Association of perceived medical errors with resident distress and empathy: a prospective longitudinal study. JAMA 2006
  • Blendon RJ et al. Views of the practicing physician and the public on medical errors. NEJM 2002.
  • Shanafelt TD et al.Burnout and self-reported patient care in an internal medicine residency program. Ann Int Med 2002:
  • Nelson, P. ³Autobiography in Five Chapters² From: Hole In My Sidewalk. Beyond Words Publishing: Hillsboro, OR. 1993.
  • Peters M and King J. Perfectionism in doctors: Can lead to unhealthy behaviors in stressful work situations BMJ 2012;344:e1674
  • Wu A. Medical Error: The second victim BMJ 2000;320:726

Outcomes Research

  • Beckman, H. B., Wendland, M., Mooney, C., Krasner, M. S., Quill, T. E., Suchman, A. L., & Epstein, R. M. (2012). The impact of a program in mindful communication on primary care physicians. Academic Medicine, 87(6), 1-5.
  • Krasner, M. S., Epstein, R. M., Beckman, H., Suchman, A. L., Chapman, B., Mooney, C. J., & Quill, T. E. (2009). Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(12), 1284-1293. doi: 302/12/1284 [pii];10.1001/jama.2009.1384 [doi]
  • Rosenzweig, S., Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Brainard, G. C., & Hojat, M. (2003). Mindfulness-based stress reduction lowers psychological distress in medical students. Teaching & Learning in Medicine, 15(2), 88-92.
  • Hassed, C., de Lisle, S., Sullivan, G., & Pier, C. (2008). Enhancing the health of medical students: outcomes of an integrated mindfulness and lifestyle program. Adv.Health Sci.Educ Theory.Pract.