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Experts Outline Pathway to a Universal Influenza Vaccine

Tuesday, October 17, 2017

NIH-Led meeting identifies knowledge gaps, development goals

Colorized transmission electron micrograph showing H1N1 influenza virus particles

Colorized transmission electron micrograph showing H1N1 influenza virus particles. NIAID

What

Scientists and clinicians from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and the California Institute of Technology discuss key considerations for developing a universal influenza vaccine in a meeting report appearing in the October 17 issue of Immunity. The report summarizes discussions from a workshop NIAID held June 28-29, 2017, in Rockville, Maryland, entitled, “Pathway to a Universal Influenza Vaccine.” The workshop brought together U.S. and international experts from academia, industry and government to identify knowledge gaps in influenza research and to set goals to fill these knowledge gaps. NIAID will use the report to develop a strategic plan and research agenda aimed at the development of a universal influenza vaccine.

Licensed influenza vaccines provide suboptimal protection against seasonal influenza, must be updated regularly to match circulating influenza strains, and offer little or no protection against newly emerged pandemic influenza strains. Thus, a key public health goal is to develop a universal influenza vaccine that would protect against most or all seasonal strains of influenza virus and potential pandemic strains. Scientists have been developing universal influenza vaccine strategies, including vaccines that target conserved areas of the influenza virus that remain relatively unchanged season-to-season. However, critical scientific questions remain unanswered and must be addressed to accelerate this research.

Meeting attendees noted the need for improved influenza surveillance (especially in certain regions and subpopulations), as well as a better characterization of how influenza viruses are transmitted. They also encouraged more research on immune responses to influenza vaccination and infection, including the impact of pre-existing immunity on responses to future vaccinations or influenza exposures. One way to address these questions, the report notes, would be to conduct long-term natural history studies that include people of various ages from different regions of the world. Such studies could also help define other factors that affect host immunity and delineate mediators of viral pathogenesis. Standardized human challenge models—studies in which healthy adult volunteers are purposely infected with influenza under careful medical supervision in an inpatient setting—could serve as another tool to help understand immunity to influenza and rapidly assess new vaccine candidates.

Meeting attendees discussed limitations in current influenza diagnostics, and the report calls for improved techniques to define and measure correlates of protection against influenza infection. They also debated the pros and cons of using various animal models to test vaccine candidates, study influenza transmission and better understand viral pathogenesis and the immune response to influenza. The report concludes by emphasizing the need for improved coordination among various scientific disciplines to prioritize and ultimately realize shared research goals.

Article

CI Paules et al. The Pathway to a Universal Influenza Vaccine. Immunity DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2017.09.007 (2017).

Who

NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., co-author of the report, is available for comment.

Read More: Experts Outline Pathway to a Universal Influenza Vaccine

Welcome Ellie Camanzo to the Yarovinsky lab

Monday, September 18, 2017

We would like to welcome Ellie to the lab. Stop by and say hello.

Americo Lopez-Yglesias received the Outstanding Postdoctoral Mentor Award at the 2017 SMD Opening Convocation Ceremony

Tuesday, September 12, 2017

Americo has been selected to be this year’s recipient of the Outstanding Postdoctoral Mentor Award. This award was established in 2012 to recognize a School of Medicine and Dentistry postdoc for outstanding mentoring of undergraduate or graduate students and/or other postdocs.

Congratulations!

Minsoo Kim named Dean’s Professorship

Thursday, September 7, 2017

Photo of Minsoo Kim

Dr. Minsoo Kim

Dean’s Professorships were established in 1982 and are designated by the Dean to be assigned to individuals of outstanding research excellence. Dr. Kim is a Professor of Microbiology and Immunology in the Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, and of Pharmacology and Physiology, a position he has held since 2015. He has been a member of the SMD faculty since 2007.

Dr. Kim is an established scientist who has made notable contributions in the field of host immune response against virus infection and cancer. He is especially noted for his pioneering contributions to the development of the most advanced imaging techniques that enable real-time observations of dynamic immune responses. In addition to the real-time “detection” of host immune reaction, Dr. Kim also uses optical technology to actively “control” our immune response against cancer. Cancer immunotherapy is an exciting topic, as it involves stimulating a patient’s own immune system to fight the malignancy. Although the concept has been around for 100 years, Dr. Kim is making it more relevant today by using a technology called “optogenetics” (optics + genetics) to try to improve the response rates for immunotherapy.

Join us at the Convocation on September 12th, 2017 (4pm in the Class of ’62 Auditorium)

Taylor Moon received the 2017 Peer Mentoring Award from the Department of Microbiology and Immunology

Tuesday, September 5, 2017

Taylor Moon received the 2017 Peer Mentoring Award from the Department of Microbiology and Immunology. This is an annual award chosen by students in the department in recognition of a student who is a positive role model for other students, advocates for students, encourages others’ intellectual growth, and offers professional guidance.

We congratulate Taylor for receiving this well-deserved honor.

Dr. Kihong Lim Awarded the American Lung Association's Biomedical Research Grant

Thursday, July 6, 2017

Dr. Kihong Lim, Research Assistant Professor in Dr. Minsoo Kim’s Laboratory, has been chose by the American Lung Association as a recipient of the July 2017-June 2018 Biomedical Research Grant, for his project titled: “Innate Immune Responses in Influenza Virus-Infected Trachea.”

Kihong Lim has worked in Dr. Kim’s lab as a Staff Scientist since 2011, and was recently promoted to Research Assistant Professor. Kihong has had a huge impact in the Kim Lab, as he has been a key contributor to NIH-funded research programs. We are very excited to him establish his own research project and become independent in his future career.

Dr. Marta Lopez De Diego receives University Research Award

Saturday, July 1, 2017

Photo of Dr. Marta Lopez De Diego

Dr. Marta Lopez De Diego

Dr. Marta Lopez De Diego, Research Assistant Professor in the Topham Lab, receives University Research Award to further analyze NS1 protein variability in the current seasonal influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 viruses and characterize the effect of the identified mutations on evading host innate immune responses and in modulating viral pathogenesis The project is entitled “Role of NS1 mutations in interferon responses, inflammation and pathogenesis induced by seasonal human influenza A viruses,” and is a collaboration between Dr. Marta Lopez De Diego and Dr. Aitor Nogales Gonzalez in the at the University of Rochester.

Elliott Lab receives University Research Award

Saturday, July 1, 2017

The Elliott Lab received University Research Award to investigate the mechanisms and immunologic consequences of macrophage exhaustion resulting from immunotherapy-induced antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis. The project is entitled “Macrophage exhaustion as a novel mechanism of resistance to therapeutic mAbs,” and is a collaboration between the labs of Dr. Elliott and Dr. Clive S. Zent in the Wilmot Cancer Institute at the University of Rochester.

Read More: Elliott Lab receives University Research Award

Scientists Light the Way for Immune System to Attack Cancer

Monday, May 15, 2017

Photo of Dr. Minsoo Kim

The science behind harnessing the immune system to fight cancer is complicated, but a University of Rochester Medical Center laboratory discovered a simple, practical way to use light and optics to steer killer immune cells toward tumors.

In a study published by the online journal Nature Communications, lead author Minsoo Kim, Ph.D., a UR professor of Microbiology and Immunology and a Wilmot Cancer Institute investigator, described his method as similar to “sending light on a spy mission to track down cancer cells.”

Immunotherapy is different from radiation or chemotherapy. Instead of directly killing cancer cells, immunotherapy tells the immune system to act in certain ways by stimulating T cells to attack the disease. Several different types of immunotherapy exist or are in development, including pills called “checkpoint inhibitors” and CAR T-cell therapy that involves removing a patient’s own immune cells and altering them genetically to seek and destroy cancer cells.

The problem, however, is that immunotherapy can cause the immune system to overreact or under-react, Kim said. In addition, cancer cells are evasive and can hide from killer T-cells. Aggressive tumors also suppress the immune system in the areas surrounding the malignancy (called the microenvironment), keeping T cells out.

Read More: Scientists Light the Way for Immune System to Attack Cancer