Multiphoton Surgical Imaging
Multiphoton imaging has had a revolutionary impact on life sciences because of its ability to rapidly image living tissue at cellular resolution, but has not been accepted in clinical medicine, which continues to use conventional light microscopy techniques developed in the 19th century that are slow and cumbersome. However, recent advances in cost-effective femtosecond lasers, high-speed silicon detectors, and advanced graphics processing have made the application of multiphoton imaging to cancer surgery attractive.
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Virtual Transmission Microscopy
Conventional histology is based on light microscopy of thin tissue sections stained with absorptive dyes. These techniques, developed more than 100 years ago, are the standard for the evaluation of nearly all cancer. However, they are slow, costly, subjective and inherently analog because tissue most be fixed in formaldehyde and then cut into thin wax sections for viewing.
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Microscopy with UV Surface Excitation (MUSE) Imaging
Microscopic evaluation of tissue pathology is typically divided between intraoperative techniques such as frozen sections analysis, which is expensive and only available in limited scenarios, and conventional paraffin embedded histology, which is available to most physicians, but requires several days delay for tissue processing. MUSE imaging is an emerging technique that rapidly (seconds) produces histological images using ultraviolet LEDs to excite fluorescence from the surface layers of whole tissue specimens. MUSE can be combined with virtual transmission microscopy algorithms to produce images similar to conventional histology, or can be used to extract novel sources of contrast.
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High Speed Optoelectronics
Conventional two photon microscopy uses photomultiplier tubes which are too slow and too fragile for surgical imaging applications, where speed is critical and surgeons expect to work with the lights on. We are developing photodetectors that enable high dynamic range imaging while being resilient to background light.
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