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Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale Assessment Resources

Dr. Wortzel and Dr. Oldham have developed the following educational resources on how to assess for catatonia using the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) in collaboration with Dr. Francis, the scale’s senior author. 

The BFCRS Training Manual and Coding Guide describes how to use and score the BFCRS, explains each item in detail, and clarifies how to differentiate items that closely resemble one another. The Manual's sections include:

  • Background 
  • Scoring notes
  • Detailed description of each BFCRS item
  • Structured clinical assessments for the BFCRS: expanded & single-page versions

Overview of Catatonia
Assessment Resources


Dr. Oldham and Dr. Wortzel provide a brief introduction to the assessment resources available on this webpage. 

Standardized Patient Training Videos

In the first of the four training videos below, we illustrate a full clinical assessment for the BFCRS in a standardized patient without catatonia. The subsequent three videos depict assessments of a standardized patient portraying catatonia's three common motoric subtypes. For each video, we provide a completed BFCRS form for how we score these assessments, along with key points for reference. 

Normal Exam

This video features a standardized patient without catatonia to illustrate how to assess for all items on the BFCRS.

Clinical Assessment for the BFCRS:

Blank BFCRS form for scoring

Examples of Catatonia

Test materials

Below are videos of test patients A & B and corresponding forms A & B of a multiple-choice test, each with an answer key.

Point-of-care Videos

Coming early 2022, these videos will illustrate each items on the BFCRS and how to score severity.

Additional Resources

Catatonia Information Center
Directed by Andrew Francis, PhD, MD


Bush G, Fink M, Petrides G, Dowling F, Francis A. Catatonia. I. Rating scale and standardized examination. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996;93(2):129-136.

Bush G, Fink M, Petrides G, Dowling F, Francis A. Catatonia. II. Treatment with lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996; 93(2):137-143.

Wortzel JR, Maeng DD, Francis A, Oldham MA. Prevalent gaps in understanding the features of catatonia among psychiatrists, psychiatry trainees, and medical students. J Clin Psychiatry. 2021;82(5):21m14025.

Contact Us

Joshua Wortzel, MD, MPhil
Resident Physician in Psychiatry, PGY-4

Mark Oldham, MD
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry
University of Rochester, Department of Psychiatry