What is gastroesophageal reflux?
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a digestive disorder. Gastroesophageal refers to
the stomach and esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the
stomach. Reflux means to flow back or return.
In this condition, the acidic stomach juices, food, and fluids come back into your
Reflux can happen at any age, but it’s common in babies. It may be a temporary condition.
It can also become a long-term problem. This is called gastroesophageal reflux disease
What causes reflux?
Reflux is often caused by problems with the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). This
is a muscle at the bottom of the esophagus. Normally, it opens to let food into the
stomach and closes to keep food in the stomach. When this muscle relaxes too often
or for too long, acid goes back into the esophagus. This causes nausea, vomiting,
As babies digest their food, the LES may open. This lets stomach contents go back
up into your child’s esophagus. Sometimes the contents go all the way up. This causes
your baby to vomit. Other times, the contents may only go part of the way up the esophagus.
This can cause heartburn or breathing problems. Or it may not cause symptoms.
What are the symptoms of reflux?
Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They can include:
- Not wanting to eat
- Stomach ache
- Fussiness around mealtimes
- Coughing often
- Having coughing fits at night
- Getting ear infections often
- Rattling sound in the chest
The symptoms of this condition may be similar to symptoms of other health problems.
Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is reflux diagnosed?
Your child’s healthcare provider will check his or her health history. Then he or
she will give your child an exam. Your child’s healthcare provider may do the following
tests to diagnose GER.
A chest X-ray is done to look for signs of aspiration. In this condition, the stomach
contents spill into the lungs. This causes breathing problems and lung infections.
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series
An upper GI series looks at the organs in the upper part of your child’s digestive
system. These include the esophagus, stomach, and the first section of the small intestine
(duodenum). For this test, your child will swallow barium. This is a metallic liquid
that coats the inside of his or her organs. This helps them show up on an X-ray. Then
your child’s healthcare provider will take an X-ray of these organs.
In this test, a small, flexible tube (endoscope) is used to look at the inside of
your child’s digestive tract. This tube has a light and a camera lens at the end of
it. During the test, your child may have tissue samples removed from his or her digestive
tract. Your child’s healthcare provider will test these samples.
This test measures the level of acidity in your child’s esophagus.
Gastric emptying studies
This test will show if your child’s stomach contents empty into his or her small intestine
the right way. Delayed gastric emptying can cause reflux.
What is the treatment for reflux?
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also
depend on how severe the condition is.
Most babies with reflux have no symptoms other than spitting up often. As long as
these children grow well and don’t have other issues caused by reflux, they don’t
Sometimes reflux can be managed with feeding changes. These changes should be made
under the care of your baby's healthcare provider . These can include:
- Hold your baby upright for 30 minutes after feedings. Ask your child’s healthcare
provider about the best position for your baby to sleep in.
- Keep the nipple of the bottle filled with milk if you’re bottle-feeding. This can
keep your baby from swallowing air when he or she is eating. Use a nipple that allows
your baby's mouth to make a good seal with the nipple.
- Add rice cereal to a feeding. This may help some older babies.
- Burp your baby several times when bottle-feeding or breastfeeding. Your baby may spit-up
more often when burping with a full stomach.
- Make sure your baby's diaper isn’t too tight. This can make reflux worse.
Your baby may need reflux medicine. These medicines can decrease the amount of acid
the stomach makes. This will ease the heartburn caused by reflux.
Some babies with reflux may vomit often. This can keep them from gaining weight. In
this case, your baby’s healthcare provider may suggest the following:
- Adding rice cereal to your baby’s formula
- Prescribing a supplement to add calories to your baby’s diet
- Changing your baby to a milk-free or soy-free formula. Your child’s healthcare provider
may do this if he or she thinks your child has an allergy.
Some babies with reflux have other conditions that make them tired. These can include
heart disease or being born premature. These babies may not be able to eat much before
getting sleepy. Other babies can’t keep a normal amount of formula or breastmilk in
their stomachs without vomiting. These babies may do better if they took in a small
amount of food continuously.
In these cases, your child’s healthcare provider may recommend tube feedings. A tube
is placed in your child’s nose and guided through the esophagus and stomach. This
is called a nasogastric tube. These tubes can also be used to bypass the stomach if
needed. Tube feedings can be done with or in place of bottle-feeding or breastfeeding.
In severe cases, your child will need surgery. This surgery is done to reinforce the
lower esophageal sphincter. This helps keep the reflux from happening.
What are the complications of reflux?
Some babies with reflux may not vomit. Instead, their stomach contents may move up
and spill over into the windpipe (trachea). This can cause wheezing and pneumonia.
In rare cases, this can be life-threatening.
Babies with reflux who vomit often may not gain weight and grow normally. This can
cause inflammation (esophagitis) or sores (ulcers) in the esophagus. These ulcers
can be painful. They may also bleed. This can lead to anemia. This means too few red
blood cells in the bloodstream. Over time, this may cause long-term problems. These
can include the conditions esophageal narrowing (stricture) and abnormal cells in
the lining of the esophagus (Barrett's esophagus).
Living with reflux
Many babies with reflux will outgrow it by the time they are 1 year old. This is when
the LES becomes stronger. For other babies, feeding and lifestyle changes and medicine
can help. Work with your child’s healthcare team to create a care plan for your child.
When should I call my child's healthcare provider?
Call your child’s healthcare provider if your child vomits after every feeding or
has new reflux symptoms.
Key points about reflux
- Reflux is caused by problems with the LES. This muscle should open to let food into
the stomach and close to keep food in the stomach. When it relaxes too often or for
too long, acid goes back into the esophagus. This causes reflux.
- This condition can occur at any age, but it’s common in babies.
- Most babies with reflux have no symptoms other spitting up often. As long as your
baby is growing well and has no other reflux symptoms, he or she won’t need treatment.
- Holding your baby upright for 30 minutes after feedings, reducing how much air your
baby swallows, and burping your baby well during feedings may relieve reflux.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child.
Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose
for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important
if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.