Booster shots are intended to bolster the effect of the initial dose(s) of the vaccine. Data has shown that after several months the effectiveness of the vaccine, while still substantial, does decline somewhat. This does not mean that the vaccine is no longer working.
The highly-transmissible Omicron variant makes booster shots even more important. According to the CDC, strong immunity will likely prevent serious illness, and the CDC recommends that everyone 18 and older receive a bivalent booster now two months their initial Pfizer or Moderna series or after their initial Johnson & Johnson vaccine.
Booster shots are used for many types of vaccines, such as for tetanus or whooping cough. Unlike an additional dose of vaccine that is given to individuals who are immunocompromised and do not build up enough protection when they get the initial vaccination, booster doses are given to people who have built enough protection after their vaccine, but that protection decreases over time, a situation called waning immunity.
Talk with your health care provider about any questions or concerns you have about getting a COVID-19 vaccine booster shot.