What is a hiatal hernia?
A hernia is when part of an organ goes through an opening in the muscle wall around
In a hiatal hernia, part of your stomach pushes up into an opening (the hiatus) in
your diaphragm. The diaphragm is the muscle between your stomach and your chest.
In most cases, your food pipe (esophagus) goes through the hiatus and joins your stomach.
But with a hiatal hernia, the top part of your stomach moves up through that opening
into your chest.
The top part of your stomach gets pinched. Stomach acid can back up (reflux) through
the opening. This may cause heartburn and other symptoms.
There are 2 types of hiatal hernias: sliding and paraesophageal.
Sliding hiatal hernia
- Is most common
- Happens when part of the stomach, and the place where the stomach and esophagus meet,
slide up into your chest through the opening (hiatus)
- Is less common but can be more serious
- Happens when part of your stomach pushes up through the opening (hiatus) into your
chest and is next to your esophagus
What causes a hiatal hernia?
Experts don’t know what causes hiatal hernias. Some causes may include:
- Straining while having a bowel movement
- Sudden physical effort
Who is at risk for a hiatal hernia?
You may be at greater risk for a hiatal hernia if you:
- Are over 50 years old
- Are overweight or obese
- Are pregnant
What are the symptoms of a hiatal hernia?
In many cases a hiatal hernia has no symptoms.
Some people do have symptoms. These may include:
- Feeling nauseous
- Backflow (reflux) of acid or stomach contents into the esophagus or throat
- Trouble swallowing
Paraesophageal hernias may have more severe symptoms. These can include:
- Having trouble swallowing sometimes, most often with solid foods
- Feeling full after eating only a small amount of food
- Belly (abdominal) or chest pain
- Abdominal bleeding
- Blood loss (anemia)
In some cases a paraesophageal hernia can lead to a medical emergency. The stomach
or abdominal organs may turn or twist, causing very bad pain. There is a danger that
the stomach’s blood supply may be cut off (strangulation). This is an emergency. You
will likely need surgery right away.
The symptoms of a hiatal hernia may look like other health problems. Always see your
healthcare provider to be sure.
How is a hiatal hernia diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will give you a physical exam. He or she will look at your
You may also have tests including:
- Chest X-ray. This may show that you have a hiatal hernia.
- Upper endoscopy, also called EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy). This test looks at the lining of your food pipe (esophagus), stomach, and the first
part of your small intestine (the duodenum). It uses a thin lighted tube, called an
endoscope. The tube has a camera at one end. The tube is put into your mouth and throat.
Then it goes into your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Your healthcare provider
can see the inside of these organs.
- Upper GI (gastrointestinal) series or barium swallow. This test looks at the organs of the top part of your digestive system. It checks
your food pipe (esophagus), stomach, and the first part of your small intestine (the
duodenum). You will swallow a metallic fluid called barium. Barium coats the organs
so that they can be seen on an X-ray.
- Esophageal manometry. This test checks the strength of your esophagus muscles. It can see if you have
any problems with reflux or swallowing. A small tube is put into your nostril, then
down your throat into your esophagus. This measures the pressure that your esophagus
muscles make at rest.
How is a hiatal hernia treated?
Your healthcare provider will create a care plan for you based on:
- Your age, overall health, and past health
- How serious your case is
- How well you handle some medicines, treatments, or therapies
- If your condition is expected to get worse
- What you would like to do
In most cases you won’t need treatment. But you may need medical care if your hernia:
- Is at risk of being twisted so much that blood supply is cut off to your stomach (strangulation)
- Is more difficult because of severe GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
- Is more difficult because of redness and swelling (inflammation) of your esophagus
Your healthcare provider may suggest medicines to:
- Weaken or neutralize stomach acid (antacids)
- Reduce the amount of acid your stomach makes (H-2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors)
- Strengthen your LES or lower esophageal sphincter. The LES is the muscle that stops
stomach acid from backing up into your esophagus.
In severe cases surgery may also be needed to:
- Make your hernia smaller
- Stop loss of blood flow to your stomach (strangulation) by closing the opening in
What are the complications of a hiatal hernia?
In most cases a hiatal hernia won’t lead to other health problems.
In some cases it can cause other problems such as:
- Severe GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
- Lung problems or pneumonia because stomach contents have moved up into your esophagus
and into 1 or both lungs
- Strangulation of the hernia, cutting off blood flow to your stomach. This is a medical
What can I do to prevent a hiatal hernia?
Health experts don’t know what causes hiatal hernias. They don’t know how to stop
them from happening.
Living with a hiatal hernia
Follow your healthcare provider’s advice for treating and managing your hiatal hernia.
You may need to make some lifestyle changes, such as:
- Losing weight if you are overweight or obese
- Not eating for 3 to 4 hours before going to bed
- Not bending over right after eating
- Quitting smoking
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Call your healthcare provider if your symptoms come back after treatment has stopped
them. Let him or her know if symptoms get worse or you have new symptoms.
- A hiatal hernia is when part of your stomach pushes up into an opening (the hiatus)
in your diaphragm.
- There are 2 types of hiatal hernias: sliding and paraesophageal.
- Paraesophageal hernias are less common but can be more serious. You may need surgery.
- Experts don’t know what causes hiatal hernias.
- In most cases there are no symptoms.
- In most cases no medical care is needed.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
- At the visit, write down the names of new medicines, treatments, or tests, and any
new instructions your provider gives you.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.