Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Children and Teens
What is generalized anxiety disorder?
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic, excessive worry and fear that seems
to have no real cause. Children or teens with GAD often worry a lot about many things.
These include future events, past behaviors, social acceptance, family matters, their
personal abilities, or school performance.
What causes generalized anxiety disorder?
Anxiety disorders are believed to have biological, family, and environmental factors
that contribute to the cause. A chemical imbalance involving 2 chemicals in the brain
(norepinephrine and serotonin) may contribute to the development of anxiety disorders.
A child or teen may have inherited a biological tendency to be anxious, anxiety and
fear. This tendency can also be learned from family members and others who often display
increased anxiety around the child. For example, a child with a parent who is afraid
of thunderstorms may learn to fear thunderstorms. A traumatic experience may also
Who is affected by generalized anxiety disorder?
All children and teens have some anxiety. It is a normal part of growing up. But sometimes
worries and fears don’t go away. They may interfere with a child or teen’s normal
activities. In these cases an anxiety disorder may be present. Children of parents
with an anxiety disorder are more likely to develop an anxiety disorder.
What are the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder?
Unlike adults with this disorder, children and teens usually don’t realize that their
anxiety is more intense than the situation calls for. Children and teens with GAD
often need frequent reassurance from the adults in their lives.
Each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms of GAD may include:
Many worries about things before they happen
Many worries about friends, school, or activities
Constant thoughts and fears about the child’s safety or the parents’ safety
Refusing to go to school
Frequent stomachaches, headaches, or other physical complaints
Muscle aches or tension
Excessive worry about sleeping away from home
Clingy behavior with family members
Feeling as though there is a lump in the throat
Lack of concentration
Being easily startled
Inability to relax
The symptoms of GAD in children or teens may look like other health conditions or
psychiatric problems. Always talk with your child's healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is generalized anxiety disorder diagnosed?
A child psychiatrist or other qualified mental health professional usually diagnoses
anxiety disorders in children or teens after a full psychiatric evaluation. Parents
who note symptoms of severe anxiety in their child or teen can help by seeking an
evaluation and treatment as soon as possible. Early treatment may help prevent future
Treatment for generalized anxiety disorder
Children and teens with GAD can’t just pull themselves together and get better. Treatment
is often needed. In many cases, treatment is key to recovery. Treatment will depend
on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe
the condition is.
Anxiety disorders can be effectively treated. Treatment should always be based on
a full evaluation of the child and family. Parents and families play a vital, supportive
role in any treatment process.
Treatment may include:
Cognitive behavioral therapy for the child. This focuses on helping the child or teen learn skills to manage anxiety. It also
focuses on helping the child master the situations that lead to the anxiety.
Medicines. Treatment with antidepressant or antianxiety medicine may help some children feel
Consultation with the child's school
Prevention of generalized anxiety disorder
It’s not known how to prevent GAD in children. But diagnosing the disorder early and
getting professional help for your child can reduce severe symptoms. Taking these
steps can enhance a teen’s normal growth and development. And it can improve your
child’s quality of life.