X-rays of the Extremities
What are X-rays of the extremities?
X-rays use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to make images of the bones, and
surrounding soft tissues. Standard X-rays are done for many reasons, including diagnosing
tumors, infections, foreign bodies, or bone injuries.
X-rays are made by using external radiation to produce images of the extremity for
diagnostic purposes. X-rays pass through body structures onto specially treated plates
(similar to camera film). It makes a "negative" type picture (the more solid a structure
is, the whiter it appears on the film). Instead of film, X-rays may also be made by
using computers and digital media.
When the body undergoes X-rays, different parts of the body allow varying amounts
of the X-ray beams to pass through. Images are produced in degrees of light and dark,
depending on the amount of X-rays that penetrate the tissues. The soft tissues in
the body (such as blood, skin, fat, and muscle) allow most of the X-ray to pass through
and appear dark gray on the film. A bone or a tumor, which is denser than the soft
tissues, allows few of the X-rays to pass through and appears white on the X-ray.
At a break in a bone, the X-ray beam passes through the broken area and appears as
a dark line in the white bone.
Why might I need an extremity X-ray?
X-rays of the arm, leg, hand, foot, ankle, shoulder, knee, hip or hand may be done
to assess the bones for injuries. This includes fractures or broken bones. X-rays
can also show evidence of other injuries or conditions, such as infection, arthritis,
tendinitis, bone spurs, foreign bodies, tumors, or birth defects. X-rays may also
be used to see bone growth and development in children.
Your healthcare provider may request X-rays of joints to check for abnormalities of
the joint such as bone spurs, narrowing of the joint, and changes in the structure
of the joint.
There may be other reasons for your healthcare provider to recommend an X-ray of the
arms and legs.
What are the risks of an extremity X-ray?
You may want to ask your healthcare provider about the amount of radiation used during
the procedure and the risks related to your particular situation. It is a good idea
to keep a record of your radiation exposure, such as previous scans and other types
of X-rays, so that you can inform your providers. Risks associated with radiation
exposure may be related to the cumulative number of X-ray exams or treatments over
a long period.
If you are pregnant or think you might be, tell your healthcare provider. Radiation
exposure during pregnancy may lead to birth defects. If you need an X-ray of the extremities,
you will get special precautions to minimize the radiation exposure to the fetus.
There may be other risks depending on your specific medical condition. Be sure to
discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider before the procedure.
How do I get ready for an extremity X-ray?
- Your healthcare provider will explain the procedure to you and ask if you have questions.
- Generally, no preparation, such as fasting or sedation, is required.
- Tell the radiologic technologist if you are pregnant or think you might be.
- Tell the radiologic technologist if you have had a recent barium X-ray procedure,
as this may interfere with obtaining an optimal X-ray exposure of the lower back area
during a hip X-ray.
- Based on your medical condition, your provider may request other specific preparation.
What happens during an X-ray of an extremity?
An X-ray may be done on an outpatient basis or as part of your stay in a hospital.
Procedures may vary depending on your condition and your provider's practices.
Generally, an X-ray procedure of the extremities follows this process:
- You will be asked to remove any clothing, jewelry, hairpins, eyeglasses, hearing aids,
or other metal objects that might interfere with the procedure.
- If you are asked to remove clothing, you will be given a gown to wear.
- The type of procedure being done will dictate your positioning, such as lying on a
table, sitting, or standing, and the type of X-ray equipment used. You will be positioned
on an X-ray table that carefully places the part of the body that is to be X-rayed
between the X-ray machine and a cassette containing the X-ray film or digital media.
Exams in the sitting or standing position are done in a similar manner, with the body
part being examined placed between the X-ray machine and the X-ray film or digital
- Body parts not being imaged may be covered with a lead apron (shield) to avoid exposure
to the X-rays.
- The radiologic technologist will ask you to hold the extremity still in a certain
position for a few moments while the X-ray exposure is made.
- If the X-ray is being done to determine an injury, special care will be taken to prevent
further injury. For example, a splint or brace may be applied to the leg or arm if
a fracture is suspected.
- Some X-ray studies may require several different positions of the extremity. It is
extremely important to remain completely still while the exposure is made, as any
movement may distort the image and even require another X-ray to be done to obtain
a clear image of the body part in question.
- The X-ray beam will be focused on the area to be photographed.
- The radiologic technologist will step behind a protective window while the image is
While the X-ray procedure itself causes no pain, moving a potentially injured body
part may cause some discomfort or pain. The radiologic technologist will use all possible
comfort measures and complete the procedure as quickly as possible to minimize any
discomfort or pain.
What happens after an extremity X-ray?
Generally, there is no special type of care after X-rays. However, your healthcare
provider may give you other instructions after the procedure, depending on your particular
Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:
- The name of the test or procedure
- The reason you are having the test or procedure
- What results to expect and what they mean
- The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
- What the possible side effects or complications are
- When and where you are to have the test or procedure
- Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
- What would happen if you did not have the test or procedure
- Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
- When and how will you get the results
- Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
- How much will you have to pay for the test or procedure