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April 2016

Four Decades Behind the 'Scope: Q&A with Cytotechnologist Mary Ann Rutkowski


MARMary Ann Rutkowski remembers the day she chose her future career – at the mall.

As a high-schooler, she was at a career day event when someone handed her a flier about the field of cytology. Intrigued, she read about microscopes and cancer detection, picturing herself behind a 'scope someday.

A native of the Utica region, she graduated from Upstate Medical Center and went on to complete a clinical semester at URMC to become a certified cytotechnologist.

It was the summer of 1978, and she was 20 years old when she was offered a job in the URMC Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine. She hasn't looked back since and on May 6, Rutkowski will retire from that same position after 38 years. 

Here, she shares some reflections on her long and successful career.

Do you remember your teachers from your clinical semester at URMC?

Dr. Stanley F. Patten, Jr. wrote the textbooks. He laid the groundwork for how you not only diagnose cancer but the pre-cancerous conditions, which are so important. I have had so many wonderful mentors throughout my tenure here. Many were really pioneers in the field. Drs. Bonfiglio, Wilbur, Stoler are just a few that come to mind. Florence Patten also had a major influence on my formative years as a cytotech.

I still find it kind of frustrating when we get a case of cervical cancer which should be 100 percent preventable. It’s usually in people who may not have insurance, or something prevents them from getting annual screenings.

How has microscope technology changed since you started?

We used to look at a lot of conventional slides where you smear the material onto the slide, and it was very difficult to see. It was thick, not well stained, and air dried, so there were a lot of technical problems. It was challenging in a fun kind of way to decipher what was going on in these conventional smears.

Probably in the early 1990s, liquid-based technology really revolutionized cervical cancer screening and took that element of poor quality out of the picture. It was definitely a much needed advancement. That’s where we are today placing a pap sample in a solution and removing error the doctor may make in making the slides.

What has been your favorite part of the job overall? 

The part I enjoy most is when we go out on our aspiration biopsy procedures because we get to see the patients and we’re reminded that it’s not just a piece of glass that we have on a microscope. We may see their family, friends – their support personnel – with them. Even though we can never get to know them personally because then you lose your objectivity, I’ve always enjoyed going out and playing an “active” role in obtaining diagnostic material. The first step for our patients towards treatment is getting the answer; that is the role we play.

Do you think some people choose this profession because it’s not patient-facing?

Perhaps. That’s what attracted me to it – it has some patient contact but not an extreme amount. I admire people who take care of people who are quite sick. It’s a tough job. We are the people who are behind the scenes.

In addition to patients, what has it been like to work with partnering agencies?

We have had some wonderful clinicians who get referrals from all over this part of the state. I think we take it for granted because we’ve worked with them for so long, but these people come from Buffalo and the Southern Tier because they don’t have access to people with the expertise to do endoscopies or the various invasive procedures. For me it’s rewarding that we’re on the same team. They’re trying to stick a needle in a target and we’re trying to interpret that material accurately to the best of our ability.

How do you plan to spend retirement?

Life’s a gift and when you’re around people who have a lot of health problems you’re reminded that if you have your health, you should enjoy it and not complain. I hope to travel and I enjoy photography (an amateur shutterbug). My husband and I have a little cabin on 30 acres in the middle of nowhere on the top of a mountain in Naples that we’ve nicknamed “the bungalow.” I suspect I will be there more often.

Rochester has been our home for 30 years … When you’re here this long, this becomes your home and we have friends here. We live right in the Highland Park area and love city living, being close to things, and that park is so unique. That was my goal: to be retired before the Lilac Festival (laughs).

It’s rare these days to hear about someone sticking with the same job for 38 years. What has kept you around so long?

I never really wanted to leave, (and) even now it’s bittersweet. I feel like I have friends here, not just coworkers. We’ve always worked as a team and that’s what has allowed us to survive, helping each other out. That’s what I think has kept me here as long as I have. It can be stressful some days but we help each other out. The days go by fast and the weeks go by even faster. And the years!  I blinked and here I am 38 years later. I truly have had the time of my life here at the U of R.

Do you have any advice for young people starting their careers?

Make sure you set your goals and do something you enjoy doing. You may not stay as long in one place, but no matter what, make sure you enjoy it and appreciate what you have instead of looking at the glass as half-empty.

Dr. Blitman Named a 'HearStrong Champion'


Pathology resident, Dr. Joseph Blitman, has been named a HearStrong Champion by the HearStrong Foundation.

yaaaaBlitman is now completing his first year of pathology residency at URMC. In his bio, he describes his struggle with hearing loss and how devices helped him succeed academically and professionally.

The HearStrong Foundation was founded in 2013 to recognize the accomplishments of those who have overcome hearing loss and “celebrate individuals worldwide who have not only faced hearing loss, but conquered it.” It has recognized more than 85 Champions since the organization was founded.

Click to read the full story.


Is It Time for New Strategies to Treat Aggressive Prostate Cancer?


A new URMC study confirms that androgen deprivation therapy, which initially shrinks aggressive prostate tumors, is a double-edged sword that ultimately might fuel the spread of cancer.

It’s a controversial topic that has been investigated for years by Chawnshang Chang, Ph.D., the scientist holds yellow vial in labGeorge Hoyt Whipple Distinguished Professor of Pathology, Urology, and Radiation Oncology at the University of Rochester and Wilmot Cancer Institute. As his research gained momentum, other investigators across the country began reporting similar results about androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).  In fact, a recent review in the journal Cancer Letters (where Chang’s research was also published), calls for a fundamental shift in the way advanced prostate cancer is treated.

“It’s the right time in history for this, and I’m very happy that other major research groups are confirming our initial observations that ADT actually promotes metastasis,” Chang said.

Early stage prostate cancer is usually treated successfully with surgery and/or radiation therapy. Some early cases don’t even require treatment beyond careful monitoring. In advanced disease, however, ADT remains the standard of care.

Chang’s latest study in Cancer Letters suggests a new mechanism through which ADT inadvertently spreads cancer—by boosting the stem cell population associated with prostate tumors. Previous studies have suggested that a larger stem cell population usually feeds a more aggressive cancer, Chang said, although his study does not specifically address that issue.

Chang is also developing an alternative therapy to ADT known as ASC-J9, which is a chemically modified derivative of the spice ginger. The recent data suggest that in preclinical testing, ASC-J9 suppresses aggressive prostate tumors and their stem cell populations by altering an important protein pathway known as EZH2/STAT3.

Nothing 'Gross' About it: The Work of a Pathologists' Assistant



It’s 9:05 on a Wednesday morning and a group of apron-clad pathologists' assistants (PAs) are gathering for morning rounds.

mmmThis is a daily meeting during which the pathologists, PAs, and residents meet on the floor of the gross room at the University of Rochester Medical Center.

Raman Baldzizhar, a resident doing his Surgical Pathology rotation, reads the schedule aloud for the group. He states the age and gender of each patient along with their procedure and the name of the doctor doing the surgery.

Today’s agenda includes a prostate, a pancreas, a kidney, a spleen, esophagus, and two stomachs.

After hearing the schedule, the team decides how they’ll divide up the day's work. Moments later, a colleague walks through the door carrying a frozen section specimen. It's a dark brown piece of tissue that was removed just moments ago from a patient's thyroid.

frozenThe team has to move quickly: A frozen section specimen is sent for immediate analysis while a patient is in the operating room (OR) under anesthesia. A diagnosis must be made within 20 minutes, which will help the surgeon make a decision during the procedure.

For this procedure, the tissue is literally frozen in a chamber called a cryosat. Once frozen, it is cut into extremely thin slices. A section of the tissue is placed on a glass microscope slide and stained with dye. The pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope, render a diagnosis and report the results to the surgeon in the OR.

Each day, the PA team works against the clock; tissue specimens start to deteriorate soon after it is removed from the body and deprived of oxygen. For instance, breast tissue has a one-hour window before it must be submerged in formalin fixative to help preserve it.

The hospital’s Accessioning Unit is responsible for transporting specimens between the OR and the gross room. Technicians use an air-powered tube transport system similar to outdoor teller stations used at banks. Or, if the specimen is too large, it will be hand delivered to Surgical Pathology.

On this particular day, Dennis Dening, a PA, is examining a portion of tissue removed from a heart. I ask, What made you want to become a PA in the first place?

“I knew I wanted to do something medical, and I always enjoyed dissection,” he said, keeping his eyes fixed on the specimen.

Specimens come in all shapes and sizes. On average, the Surgical Pathology unit at URMC receives an average of nearly 500 specimens a day. They may be malignant or benign and can vary from small biopsies, such as an atypical mole removed by a dermatologist, or polyp removed during a colonoscopy. Other times, a specimen will be an entire breast or lung removed.

The PAs are responsible for dissecting and describing the specimens, in a process known as "grossing." A detailed gross examination includes information about the appearance of the specimen such as size, shape, color and consistency.

In cancer cases, the PA must identify the tumor and describe the relations of the tumor to the surrounding normal tissue. Once the gross description is completed the PA will determine what sections of the specimen will be examined microscopically by the pathologists.

ooooooooooopLaurie Baxter was hired as URMC's first PA 21 years ago and now serves as the supervisor for a team of eight full-time PAs. During her time, has seen a lot of changes in the gross room as more people have shown interest in the profession.

"Once people come here to shadow and realize this is what they want to do," she said.

Since Baxter started her career, she's seen a greater number of students choose to go into the field. She has had four employees that started as biopsy technicians and returned to school to become PA's - and expects more will follow suit in the future.

Currently there are 10 PA training programs in North America with all but one culminating in a 2-year master's degree.

“This is a pretty satisfying job,” said Baxter. “Although we never come face to face with patients, PAs play a critical role in patient care. What we describe and submit for diagnosis directly impacts future treatment options for the patient."

In addition to grossing, PAs train residents and sometimes assist in autopsy procedures. The workflow in the gross room is steady, so the team must work together productively. VVVV

Biopsy specimens have the quickest turnaround time (one to two days) but larger specimens can be more work intensive and take several days to complete.

“Every specimen represents a patient," Baxter said. “We can't ever forget that."

And don’t be fooled by the term “gross.” The human body is amazing, after all, she tells me with a laugh.

"Who says it's gross?" 


In photos (from top):

  1. Dennis Dening, a PA, dissects a ventricular core (a heart tissue specimen).

  2. Trista Skedel, a PA, checks dictation reports in the gross room at URMC.

  3. A frozen tissue sample that will be cut, stained, and examined under a microscope by a pathologist.

  4. Hilary Haefner, a PA, grosses a breast specimen.

  5. Elizabeth Sharratt dissects a uterus at the grossing station in Surgical Pathology at URMC.


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