Tooth Decay (Caries or Cavities)
What is tooth decay (caries or cavities)?
Tooth decay is the disease known as caries or cavities. Tooth decay is caused by certain
bacteria in the mouth that thrive on sugars and refined carbohydrates and produce
acids as a side effect. The acids attach to the hard outer layer of your tooth (enamel)
first. The acids eventually penetrate into the tooth to the softer mineral within
the tooth (dentin). If not treated, the tooth decay can destroy large portions of
the tooth and infect the nerve (pulp) at the center of the tooth. In older adults,
exposed root surfaces are also at risk for decay. Tooth decay is a highly preventable
disease with many contributing factors.
Who is at risk for tooth decay?
Everyone who has teeth is at risk for tooth decay. We all host bacteria in our mouths
which makes everyone a potential target for cavities. Risk factors that increase the
risk for tooth decay include:
A diet high in sweets, refined carbohydrates, and sugars
Living in communities with limited or no fluoridated water supplies
Poor oral hygiene
Reduced salivary flow
Being a child
Being an older adult
Preventing tooth decay
Preventing tooth decay and cavities involves 6 simple steps:
Brush your teeth and tongue twice a day, for at least 2 minutes at a time with a fluoridated
Floss your teeth daily.
Eat a well-balanced diet and limit or eliminate sugary snacks.
Consult your healthcare provider or dentist about supplemental use of fluoride or
dental sealants to protect family members' teeth through the age of 16.
Ask about fluoride varnish, which can be applied to teeth every 3 to 6 months.
Schedule routine dental cleanings and exams every 6 months for yourself and your family.