Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
What is benign prostatic hyperplasia?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is also called benign prostatic hypertrophy. It’s
when the prostate gland becomes very large and may cause problems passing urine. BPH
is not cancer, and is a common part of aging.
The prostate gland is found only in males. It’s located in front of the rectum and
below the bladder. It wraps around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of
the body. The prostate's job is to make some of the fluid that protects and nourishes
sperm cells in semen. This makes the semen more liquid.
BPH can raise PSA (prostate-specific antigen) levels. PSA is made by the prostate
and can be measured with a blood test. An increased PSA level does not mean you have
cancer, but the higher the PSA level, the higher the chance of having cancer.
Some of the symptoms of BPH and prostate cancer are the same, but BPH is not cancer
and does not develop into prostate cancer.
What causes BPH?
The cause of BPH is not known. The prostate goes through 2 main periods of growth.
In early puberty, it doubles in size. Then, around age 25, the prostate starts to
grow again and continues to grow throughout most of a man's life.
The continuing growth of the prostate may not cause problems until much later in life,
when the second period of growth may result in BPH. It is a common problem for men
starting in their 60s, and it is more likely for men in their 70s and 80s to have
some symptoms of BPH.
What are the symptoms of BPH?
As the prostate grows, it presses against the urethra, the tube that carries urine
out of the body. This interferes with urination. At the same time, the bladder wall
becomes thicker and irritated, and begins to contract, even when it contains only
small amounts of urine. This can cause more frequent urination. These changes cause
the bladder muscle to weaken. It may not empty fully and leave some urine behind.
This leads to symptoms.
The following are the most common symptoms of BPH:
- Leaking or dribbling of urine
- Trouble starting urine stream
- More frequent urination, especially at night
- Urgency to urinate
- Holding urine (cannot pass urine)
- An interrupted, weak stream of urine
These problems may lead to one or more of the following if BPH is not treated:
- Loss of urine control
- Kidney damage
- Blood in the urine
- Bladder damage
- Urinary tract infections
- Bladder stones
- Inability to pass urine at all
The symptoms of BPH may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always talk
with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is BPH diagnosed?
Diagnosing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in its earlier stages can lower the
risk of complications. Your healthcare provider will review your medical history and
do a physical exam. Other tests may include:
- Urine tests. To check for infection.
- Digital rectal exam. A procedure in which the healthcare provider puts a gloved finger into the rectum
to feel the part of the prostate next to the rectum.
- Ultrasound (also called sonography).An imaging test that uses high-frequency sound waves to create
images of the prostate and nearby organs on a computer screen.
- Cystoscopy. A thin flexible tube and viewing device is put into the penis and through the urethra
to examine the bladder and urinary tract for structure changes or blockages.
- Urine flow study. A test in which the man urinates into a device that measures how quickly the urine
is flowing. Reduced flow may suggest BPH.
- Post void residual. A test like an ultrasound that measures that amount of urine in the bladder after
How is BPH treated?
With time, BPH symptoms usually need some kind of treatment. When the prostate is
just mildly enlarged, treatment may not be needed. In fact, research has shown that,
in some mild cases, some of the symptoms of BPH get better without treatment. The
need to start treatment will be decided by your healthcare provider after careful
evaluation of your symptoms. Regular check-ups are important, and they’re needed to
watch for developing problems.
Treatment for BPH may include:
To remove only the enlarged tissue that is pressing against the urethra (the tube
that carries urine out of the body), with the rest of the inside prostate left intact.
Types of surgery often include:
- Transurethral surgery. No outside incision (cut) is needed. The surgeon reaches the prostate by putting an
instrument through the urethra.
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A resectoscope—a thin, narrow tube is put into the urethra through the penis. The
surgeon uses tools through the resectoscope to remove the prostate tissue blocking
the urethra one piece at a time. The pieces of tissue are carried into the bladder
and flushed out at the end of the operation.
- Transurethral incision of the prostate. A procedure that widens the urethra by making small cuts in the bladder neck, where
the urethra joins the bladder, and in the prostate gland itself.
- Laser surgery. Using laser instruments to cut away the prostate tissue blocking the urethra. The
laser fiber is passed through the urethra to the prostate.
- Open surgery. Surgery that requires an incision (cut) in the skin; often done when the gland is
very big, when there are complicating factors, or when the bladder has been damaged
and needs to be repaired.
These may include:
- Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT). Microwaves are used to heat and destroy prostate tissue to reduce urinary frequency
and urgency. A thin flexible tube is put into the urethra to get the microwaves to
the right parts of the prostate.
- Medicines. To shrink or at least stop the growth of the prostate without using surgery, or to
make the muscles around the urethra looser so urine flows more easily.
- Water-induced thermotherapy. Heated water is sent through a soft flexible tube into the urethra to heat and destroy
- Prostatic stents. Stents are narrow tubes put through the urethra into the narrowed area where they
are allowed to expand, like a spring, to push back the prostate tissue and widen the
urethra. Stents may be used when other treatments have not worked.
What are the complications BPH
Delay in treatment can cause permanent bladder damage that cannot be treated.
Living with BPH
Management of BPH may include:
- Lifestyle factors. Limit fluids in the evening, empty your bladder before going to bed, and don’t take
diuretics (water pills) that are active at night. Not smoking can also help ease BPH
- Dietary factors. Avoid or decrease alcohol, coffee, and other fluids. This is especially important
after dinner. A higher risk for BPH has been linked to a diet high in zinc, butter,
and margarine. Men who eat lots of fruits are thought to have a lower risk for BPH.
- Avoiding medicines that worsen symptoms. Decongestants and antihistamines can slow urine flow in some men with BPH. Some antidepressants
and diuretics can also worsen symptoms. Talk with your healthcare provider if you
are taking any of these medicines.
- Kegel exercises. Repeated tightening and releasing the pelvic muscles is called Kegel exercises. These
can help prevent leaking urine. Practice these exercises while urinating to train
the specific muscle. To do Kegels, contract the muscle until the flow of urine decreases
or stops and then release the muscle.
Key points about BPH
- BPH is when the prostate gland becomes very large and may cause problems passing urine.
- The cause of BPH is not known. Growth of the prostate may not cause problems until
much later in life.
- As the prostate enlarges, it presses on the urethra. This causes symptoms such as
changes in urination.
- BPH may not need treatment. If needed, treatment includes medicines, and various procedures
and surgeries used to remove the part of the prostate that’s pressing on the urethra.
- Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may include lifestyle changes.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.