Research Because we recognize the educational value provided by focused research training, the Neurological Surgery Residency Program designates and funds an 12 month research experience. During this period, the resident is designated as a Research Fellow in Neurological Surgery and works in a research laboratory with a departmental research faculty member or a faculty member from a related URMC research area. The department has close associations with our colleagues in the Department of Neurology, and in the Divisions of Neuropathology and Neuroradiology as well as the Clinical Translational Science Institute. In addition, the department has close interactions with affiliated laboratories and research centers in both the medical center and adjacent university campus that include: Translational Pain Research Neurooncology Division of Glial Disease and Therapeutics (Nedergaard) The Center for Translational Neuromedicine (Nedergaard, Goldman) The Center for Neural Development and Disease (Gelbard) The Stem Cell Institute and Regenerative Medicine (Noble) Resident Research The resident is expected to undertake substantive research resulting—as a minimum—in publishing one report in a peer-reviewed basic science journal, and making one podium presentation at a significant national neurosurgical meeting. The resident also is expected to attend all neurosurgical educational conferences. A year dedicated to laboratory research provides a unique opportunity for learning, investigation and analysis in a neurosurgical concentration and related disciplines. This year furnishes the resident with an otherwise unobtainable experience. The critical assessment and independent investigative analysis will serve him/her well, regardless of the chosen subspecialty area.