The goal of this Predoctoral Immunology Training Program is to provide academia, industry, and governmental research laboratories with highly creative and productive immunologists who are broadly trained in immunology, well trained in their research specialty and equipped to address today’s important immunological questions. This will be achieved by having the predoctoral students follow a defined set of program-specific courses as part of the Immunology Track set in the established interdepartmental graduate training milieu of the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry (URSMD). The environment will be fostered by a diverse and interactive faculty composed of both basic and translational researchers, who are dedicated to excellence in teaching and collaborative research and committed to immunology training; active immunological research programs of trainees and their mentors; structured lecture and seminar courses at the basic and advanced levels; an active seminar series, and by a catalytic number of trainees. This will occur by integrating a core of faculty within the Department of Microbiology & Immunology and the Centers for Vaccine Biology and Human Immunology with faculty from other departments and disciplines, particularly those with strong clinical/translational research interests. Research training opportunities in a wide variety of immunological problems relevant to cancer, infectious diseases and autoimmunity will be offered by an experienced, training faculty with strong records of extramural funding and an established history of collaboration. The program will be governed by a Steering Committee composed of the Program Director, the Associate Director and three senior faculty members. The learning environment will be further enriched with workshops to support trainee career development, enhanced training in the responsible conduct of research, and opportunities for training in mentoring. Students will also be trained in scientific writing, with an emphasis on manuscripts and grant applications. Since the previous competitive renewal of this application, we have broadened the research opportunities available, integrated this training program with the University of Rochester Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (UR CTSI), added new immunology-specific courses, and developed an innovative peer/near-peer evaluation process to enhance trainee career development. An External Advisory Board has been added to assist with oversight of the program. We will continue to strengthen our already successful strategies to recruit and nurture minority and women students and to provide all of the trainees with the essential skills to become independent scientists with an appreciation for the ethical conduct of research. These trained scientists will provide the next generation of researchers and teachers to further the advances in basic science and translational studies needed to improve healthcare in this country. Training support is requested for 6 predoctoral students in each of 5 years.